pISSN 1226-4512 eISSN 2093-3827
Effect of hydrogen-rich water on the lactic acid level in metformin-treated diabetic rats under hypoxia
Beneficial effects of naringenin and morin on interleukin-5 and reactive oxygen species production in BALB/c mice with ovalbumin-induced asthma
Effects of exercise on AKT/PGC1-α/FOXO3a pathway and muscle atrophy in cisplatin-administered rat skeletal muscle
Hydrogen sulfide, a gaseous signaling molecule, elongates primary cilia on kidney tubular epithelial cells by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase

Current Issue

    November, 2021 | Volume 25, No. 6
  • Original Article 2021-11-01

    Depilatory creams increase the number of hair follicles, and dermal fibroblasts expressing interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and tumor necrosis factor-β in mouse skin

    Pi-Fen Tsai, Fen-Pi Chou, Ting-Shuan Yu et al.

    Abstract : Besides using for hair removal, depilatory agents have been considered to be used as a penetration enhancer for transepidermal drug delivery. To examine the effect in hair follicles (HFs), two commercially available depilatory creams were tested on the dorsal skin of mice to monitor the effect deep into the skin structure. Fifteen male BALB/c mice were used in this study. Depilatory creams were applied to the dorsal skin of the same animal using shaved and untouched treatments as controls to minimize individual differences. Skin samples were collected at three days, one week and two weeks (n = 5 for each) after the treatment, and subjected for hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemical analysis for proinflammatory cytokines. The morphological examination showed an increase in the thickness of epidermal layer of the depilatory cream-treated skin at early time points and in the subcutis at two weeks. Depilatory cream promoted entry of anagen phase and increased the number of hair follicles in the subcutis at one and two weeks. Immunohistochemistry showed elevated percentages of dermal fibroblasts expressing interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and tumor necrosis factor-β. Shaving process increased the thickness of epidermis and dermis as depilatory creams did, but did neither induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the dermal fibroblasts nor the number of HFs. The results suggested that the commercially available depilatory creams caused a transient minor inflammatory response of the skin and increased the levels of cytokines that might subsequently affect hair growth.

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  • Original Article 2021-11-01

    Improved motility in the gastrointestinal tract of a postoperative ileus rat model with ilaprazole

    Geon Min Kim, Hee Ju Sohn, Won Seok Choi et al.

    Abstract : Postoperative ileus (POI), a symptom that occurs after abdominal surgery, reduces gastrointestinal motility. Although its mechanism is unclear, POI symptoms are known to be caused by inflammation 6 to 72 h after surgery. As proton pump inhibitors exhibit protective effect against acute inflammation, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ilaprazole on a POI rat model. POI was induced in rats by abdominal surgery. Rats were divided into six groups: control: normal rat + 0.5% CMC-Na, vehicle: POI rat + 0.5% CMC-Na, mosapride: POI rat + mosapride 2 mg/kg, ilaprazole 1 mg/kg: POI rat + ilaprazole 1 mg/kg, ilaprazole 3 mg/kg: POI rat + ilaprazole 3 mg/kg, and ilaprazole 10 mg/kg: POI rat + ilaprazole 10 mg/kg. Gastrointestinal motility was confirmed by measuring gastric emptying (GE) and gastrointestinal transit (GIT). In the small intestine, inflammation was confirmed by measuring TNF-α and IL-1β; oxidative stress was confirmed by SOD, GSH, and MDA levels; and histological changes were observed by H&E staining. Based on the findings, GE and GIT were decreased in the vehicle group and improved in the ilaprazole 10 mg/kg group. In the ilaprazole 10 mg/kg group, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were decreased, SOD and GSH levels were increased, and MDA levels were decreased. Histological damage was also reduced in the ilaprazole-treated groups. These findings suggest that ilaprazole prevents the decrease in gastrointestinal motility, a major symptom of postoperative ileus, and reduces inflammation and oxidative stress.

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  • Original Article 2021-11-01

    Effect of hydrogen-rich water on the lactic acid level in metformin-treated diabetic rats under hypoxia

    Chuan Zhao, Yushu Guo, Ruoxi Wang et al.

    Abstract : The present study aims to investigate the impact of hydrogen-rich water on the lactic acid level in metformin-treated diabetic rats under hypoxia. Thirty Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups, including normal diet group, and diabetes model (DM) group, DM + metformin treatment (DMM) group, DMM + hypoxia treatment (DMMH) group and DMMH + hydrogenrich water (DMMHR) group. We found that the levels of lactic acid, pyruvate and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly lower in the blood of DMMHR group than DMMH group. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels in liver and heart were significantly higher in DMMH group after hydrogen-rich water treatment, while malondialdehyde and oxidized glutathione levels were decreased in DMMHR group when compared with DMMH group, which indicates that hydrogen-rich water could reduce oxidative stress. qPCR analysis demonstrated that that pro-apoptotic genes Bax/Caspase-3 were upregulated in DM group and metformin treatment suppressed their upregulation (DMM group). However, hypoxic condition reversed the effect of metformin on apoptotic gene expression, and hydrogen-rich water showed little effect on these genes under hypoxia. HE staining showed that hydrogen-rich water prevented myocardial fiber damages under hypoxia. In summary, we conclude that hydrogen-rich water could prevent lactate accumulation and reduce oxidant stress in diabetic rat model to prevent hypoxia-induced damages. It could be served as a potential agent for diabetes patients with metformin treatment to prevent lactic acidosis and reduce myocardial damages under hypoxic conditions.

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  • Original Article 2021-11-01

    Roles for α1-adrenoceptors during contractions by electrical field stimulation in mouse vas deferens

    Hadeel A. Alsufyani and James R. Docherty

    Abstract : We have investigated the relative roles of α1-adrenoceptors and purinoceptors in contractions to low and high frequency stimulation of the mouse vas deferens, in terms of the time course of responses. In separate experiments, isometric contractile responses were obtained to 10 pulses at 1 Hz and 40 pulses at 10 Hz. Responses to 1 Hz stimulation consisted of a series of discrete peaks. The α1A-adrenoceptor antagonist RS100329 (10–9M–10–7M) significantly reduced the response to the first pulse, the α1D-adrenoceptor antagonist BMY7378 (10–7M–10–6M) significantly reduced the response to the first two pulses, and the non-selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (10–8M) reduced the response to the first 4 pulses at 1 Hz. Responses to 10 Hz stimulation consisted of an early peak response and a maintained plateau response. RS100329 significantly reduced the peak response but did not significantly affect the plateau response. Prazosin, significantly reduced both the peak and plateau responses. The α1A-adrenoceptor antagonist RS17053 in high concentrations reduced mainly the plateau response leaving a clear early peak response. The plateau response of contraction was almost abolished by the purinoceptor antagonist suramin. These results suggest that there is a relatively minor early α1D-adrenoceptor and a larger early α1A-adrenoceptor component to stimulationevoked contractions of mouse vas deferens, but the major α1-adrenoceptor component is revealed by prazosin to be α1B-adrenoceptor mediated. α1B-Adrenoceptor activation probably facilitates contractions mediated by other α1-adrenoceptors and by purinoceptors. These results suggest that combined non-selective α1-adrenoceptor blockade, particularly α1B-adrenoceptor blockade, in addition to P2X1-purinoceptor blockade is useful in reducing male fertility.

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  • Original Article 2021-11-01

    Triptolide improves myocardial fibrosis in rats through inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome pathway

    Jianyao Shen, Hailiang Ma, and Chaoquan Wang

    Abstract : Myocardial fibrosis (MF) is the result of persistent and repeated aggravation of myocardial ischemia and hypoxia, leading to the gradual development of heart failure of chronic ischemic heart disease. Triptolide (TPL) is identified to be involved in the treatment for MF. This study aims to explore the mechanism of TPL in the treatment of MF. The MF rat model was established, subcutaneously injected with isoproterenol and treated by subcutaneous injection of TPL. The cardiac function of each group was evaluated, including LVEF, LVFS, LVES, and LVED. The expressions of ANP, BNP, inflammatory related factors (IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α, MCP-1, VCAM-1), NLRP3 inflammasome factors (NLRP3, ASC) and fibrosis related factors (TGF-β1, COL1, and COL3) in rats were dete cted. H&E staining and Masson staining were used to observe myocardial cell inflammation and fibrosis of rats. Western blot was used to detect the p-P65 and t-P65 levels in nucleoprotein of rat myocardial tissues. LVED and LVES of MF group were significantly upregulated, LVEF and LVFS were significantly downregulated, while TPL treatment reversed these trends; TPL treatment downregulated the tissue injury and improved the pathological damage of MF rats. TPL treatment downregulated the levels of inflammatory factors and fibrosis factors, and inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome or NF-κB pathway reversed the effect of TPL on MF. Collectively, TPL inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by inhibiting NF-κB pathway, and improved MF in MF rats.

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  • Original Article 2021-11-01

    An experience on the model-based evaluation of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction for a long half-life drug

    Yunjung Hong, Sangil Jeon, Suein Choi et al.

    Abstract : Fixed-dose combinations development requires pharmacokinetic drugdrug interaction (DDI) studies between active ingredients. For some drugs, pharmacokinetic properties such as long half-life or delayed distribution, make it difficult to conduct such clinical trials and to estimate the exact magnitude of DDI. In this study, the conventional (non-compartmental analysis and bioequivalence [BE]) and modelbased analyses were compared for their performance to evaluate DDI using amlodipine as an example. Raw data without DDI or simulated data using pharmacokinetic models were compared to the data obtained after concomitant administration. Regardless of the methodology, all the results fell within the classical BE limit. It was shown that the model-based approach may be valid as the conventional approach and reduce the possibility of DDI overestimation. Several advantages (i.e., quantitative changes in parameters and precision of confidence interval) of the model-based approach were demonstrated, and possible application methods were proposed. Therefore, it is expected that the model-based analysis is appropriately utilized according to the situation and purpose.

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  • Original Article 2021-11-01

    Beneficial effects of naringenin and morin on interleukin-5 and reactive oxygen species production in BALB/c mice with ovalbumin-induced asthma

    Peng Qi, Chunhua Wei, and Dianbo Kou

    Abstract : We investigated the effects of naringenin and morin on IL-5 and ROS production in PMA+ionomycin-treated EL-4 cells with the corroboration of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties using an asthma-induced mouse model. The EL-4 cell line was used to study the outcomes of naringenin or morin, followed by cell viability studies. Western blot analysis and ELISA test were used to determine Th2 mediated cytokines. In vivo studies were carried out on BALB/c mice to induce allergic asthma using ovalbumin administered intraperitoneally. Intracellular ROS was determined using 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, followed by serum enzymatic (AST and ALT) estimations and inflammatory cell count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues. Histopathological studies were conducted to examine lung tissue-stained architecture. Our findings suggested that naringenin and morin significantly suppressed IL-5 and ROS production via various pathways. Interestingly, by reducing NFAT activity, naringenin and morin stimulated HO-1 expression, thereby suppressing IL-5 secretion due to regulating the transcription factor Nrf2 via P13/Akt or ERK/JNK signalling pathways in EL-4 cells, demonstrating the involvement of HO-1 expression in inhibiting asthmatic inflammation. The increased inflammatory cells in the BALF were substantially decreased by both naringenin and morin, followed by inhibition in the elevated Th-2 cytokines levels. The TNF-α protein levels in an allergic asthma mouse model were significantly reduced by suppressing Akt phosphorylation and eosinophil formation. Recent findings confirmed that naringenin and morin possess the potential to control asthma-related immune responses through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, indicating potential therapeutic agents or functional foods.

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  • Original Article 2021-11-01

    Kir4.1 is coexpressed with stemness markers in activated astrocytes in the injured brain and a Kir4.1 inhibitor BaCl2 negatively regulates neurosphere formation in culture

    Jae-Kyung Kwon, Dong-Joo Choi, Haijie Yang et al.

    Abstract : Astrocytes are activated in response to brain damage. Here, we found that expression of Kir4.1, a major potassium channel in astrocytes, is increased in activated astrocytes in the injured brain together with upregulation of the neural stem cell markers, Sox2 and Nestin. Expression of Kir4.1 was also increased together with that of Nestin and Sox2 in neurospheres formed from dissociated P7 mouse brains. Using the Kir4.1 blocker BaCl2 to determine whether Kir4.1 is involved in acquisition of stemness, we found that inhibition of Kir4.1 activity caused a concentration-dependent increase in sphere size and Sox2 levels, but had little effect on Nestin levels. Moreover, induction of differentiation of cultured neural stem cells by withdrawing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor from the culture medium caused a sharp initial increase in Kir4.1 expression followed by a decrease, whereas Sox2 and Nestin levels continuously decreased. Inhibition of Kir4.1 had no effect on expression levels of Sox2 or Nestin, or the astrocyte and neuron markers glial fibrillary acidic protein and β-tubulin III, respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that Kir4.1 may control gain of stemness but not differentiation of stem cells.

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  • Original Article 2021-11-01

    Aging effects on the diurnal patterns of gut microbial composition in male and female mice

    Hyun-Jung Kim, Chang Mo Moon, Jihee Lee Kang et al.

    Abstract : Composition of the gut microbiota changes with aging and plays an important role in age-associated disease such as metabolic syndrome, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The gut microbiota composition oscillates through the day, and the disruption of their diurnal rhythm results in gut dysbiosis leading to metabolic and immune dysfunctions. It is well documented that circadian rhythm changes with age in several biological functions such as sleep, body temperature, and hormone secretion. However, it is not defined whether the diurnal pattern of gut microbial composition is affected by aging. To evaluate aging effects on the diurnal pattern of the gut microbiome, we evaluated the taxa profiles of cecal contents obtained from young and aged mice of both sexes at daytime and nighttime points by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. At the phylum level, the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and the relative abundances of Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria were increased in aged male mice at night compared with that of young male mice. Meanwhile, the relative abundances of Sutterellaceae, Alloprevotella, Lachnospiraceae UCG-001, and Parasutterella increased in aged female mice at night compared with that of young female mice. The Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group relative abundance increased in aged mice of both sexes but at opposite time points. These results showed the changes in diurnal patterns of gut microbial composition with aging, which varied depending on the sex of the host. We suggest that disturbed diurnal patterns of the gut microbiome can be a factor for the underlying mechanism of age-associated gut dysbiosis.

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  • Original Article 2021-11-01

    Effects of exercise on AKT/PGC1-α/FOXO3a pathway and muscle atrophy in cisplatin-administered rat skeletal muscle

    Jun Hyun Bae, Dae Yun Seo, Sang Ho Lee et al.

    Abstract : Cisplatin has been reported to cause side effects such as muscle wasting in humans and rodents. The physiological mechanisms involved in preventing muscle wasting, such as the regulation of AKT, PGC1-α, and autophagy-related factor FOXO3a by MuRF 1 and Atrogin-1, remain unclear following different types of exercise and in various skeletal muscle types. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 34) were assigned to one of four groups: control (CON, n = 6), cisplatin injection (1 mg/kg) without exercise (CC, n = 8), cisplatin (1 mg/kg) + resistance exercise (CRE, n = 9) group, and cisplatin (1 mg/kg) + aerobic exercise (CAE, n = 11). The CRE group performed progressive ladder exercise (starting with 10% of body weight on a 1-m ladder with 2-cm-interval grids, at 85°) for 8 weeks. The CAE group exercised by treadmill running (20 m/min for 60 min daily, 4 times/week) for 8 weeks. Compared with the CC group, the levels of the autophagy-related factors BNIP3, Beclin 1, LC3-II/I ratio, p62, and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were significantly decreased in the CRE and CAE groups. The CRE and CAE groups further showed significantly decreased MuRF 1 and Atrogin-1 levels and increased phosphorylation of AKT, FOXO3a, and PGC1-α. These results suggest that both ladder and aerobic exercise directly affected muscle wasting by modulating the AKT/PGC1-α/FOXO3a signaling pathways regardless of the skeletal muscle type.

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  • Original Article 2021-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, a gaseous signaling molecule, elongates primary cilia on kidney tubular epithelial cells by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    Sang Jun Han, Jee In Kim, Joshua H. Lipschutz et al.

    Abstract : Primary cilia on kidney tubular cells play crucial roles in maintaining structure and physiological function. Emerging evidence indicates that the absence of primary cilia, and their length, are associated with kidney diseases. The length of primary cilia in kidney tubular epithelial cells depends, at least in part, on oxidative stress and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) activation. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in antioxidant systems and the ERK signaling pathway. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of H2S in primary cilia elongation and the downstream pathway. In cultured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells, the length of primary cilia gradually increased up to 4 days after the cells were grown to confluent monolayers. In addition, the expression of H2S-producing enzyme increased concomitantly with primary cilia length. Treatment with NaHS, an exogenous H2S donor, accelerated the elongation of primary cilia whereas DL-propargylglycine (a cystathionine γ-lyase inhibitor) and hydroxylamine (a cystathionine-β-synthase inhibitor) delayed their elongation. NaHS treatment increased ERK activation and Sec10 and Arl13b protein expression, both of which are involved in cilia formation and elongation. Treatment with U0126, an ERK inhibitor, delayed elongation of primary cilia and blocked the effect of NaHS-mediated primary cilia elongation and Sec10 and Arl13b upregulation. Finally, we also found that H2S accelerated primary cilia elongation after ischemic kidney injury. These results indicate that H2S lengthens primary cilia through ERK activation and a consequent increase in Sec10 and Arl13b expression, suggesting that H2S and its downstream targets could be novel molecular targets for regulating primary cilia.

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  • Original Article 2021-11-01

    Influences of ethanol and temperature on sucrose-evoked response of gustatory neurons in the hamster solitary nucleus

    Cheng-Shu Li, Ki-Myung Chung, Kyung-Nyun Kim et al.

    Abstract : Taste-responsive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), the first gustatory nucleus, often respond to thermal or mechanical stimulation. Alcohol, not a typical taste modality, is a rewarding stimulus. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ethanol (EtOH) and/or temperature as stimuli to the tongue on the activity of taste-responsive neurons in hamster NST. In the first set of experiments, we recorded the activity of 113 gustatory NST neurons in urethane-anesthetized hamsters and evaluated responses to four basic taste stimuli, 25% EtOH, and 40°C and 4°C distilled water (dH2O). Sixty cells responded to 25% EtOH, with most of them also being sucrose sensitive. The response to 25% EtOH was significantly correlated with the sucrose-evoked response. A significant correlation was also observed between sucrose- and 40°C dH2O-and between 25% EtOH- and 40°C dH2O-evoked firings. In a subset of the cells, we evaluated neuronal activities in response to a series of EtOH concentrations, alone and in combination with 32 mM sucrose (EtOH/Suc) at room temperature (RT, 22°C–23°C), 40°C, and 4°C. Neuronal responses to EtOH at RT and 40°C increased as the concentrations increased. The firing rates to EtOH/Suc were greater than those to EtOH or sucrose alone. The responses were enhanced when solutions were applied at 40°C but diminished at 4°C. In summary, EtOH activates most sucrose-responsive NST gustatory cells, and the concomitant presence of sucrose or warm temperatures enhance this response. Our findings may contribute to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying appetitive alcohol consumption.

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November, 2021
Vol.25 No.6

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