Abstract : Multidrug resistance of tumors has been a severe obstacle to the success of cancer chemotherapy. The study wants to investigate the reversal effects of imperatorin (IMP) on doxorubicin (DOX) resistance in K562/DOX leukemia cells, A2780/Taxol cells and in NOD/SCID mice, to explore the possible molecular mechanisms. K562/DOX and A2780/Taxol cells were treated with various concentrations of DOX and Taol with or without different concentrations of IMP, respectively. K562/DOX xenograft model was used to assess anti-tumor effect of IMP combined with DOX. MTT assay, Rhodamine 123 efflux assay, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis were determined in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that IMP significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of DOX and Taxol toward corresponding resistance cells. In vivo results illustrated both the tumor volume and tumor weight were significantly decreased after 2-week treatment with IMP combined with DOX compared to the DOX alone group. Western blotting and RT-PCR analyses indicated that IMP downregulated the expression of P-gp in K562/DOX xenograft tumors in NOD/SCID mice. We also evaluated glycolysis and glutamine metabolism in K562/DOX cells by measuring glucose consumption and lactate production. The results revealed that IMP could significantly reduce the glucose consumption and lactate production of K562/DOX cells. Furthermore, IMP could also remarkably repress the glutamine consumption, α-KG and ATP production of K562/DOX cells. Thus, IMP may sensitize K562/DOX cells to DOX and enhance the anti-tumor effect of DOX in K562/DOX xenograft tumors in NOD/SCID mice. IMP may be an adjuvant therapy to mitigate the multidrug resistance in leukemia chemotherapy.
Abstract : Disulfiram (DSF) is an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor. DSF has potent anti-cancer activity for solid and hematological malignancies. Although the effects on cancer cells have been proven, there have been few studies on DSF toxicity in bone marrow cells (BMs). DSF reduces the metabolic activity and the mitochondrial membrane potential of BMs. In subset analyses, we confirmed that DSF does not affect the proportion of BMs. In addition, DSF significantly impaired the metabolic activity and differentiation of BMs treated with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, an essential growth and differentiation factor for BMs. To measure DSF toxicity in BMs in vivo, mice were injected with 50 mg/kg, a dose used for anti-cancer effects. DSF did not significantly induce BM toxicity in mice and may be tolerated by antioxidant defense mechanisms. This is the first study on the effects of DSF on BMs in vitro and in vivo. DSF has been widely studied as an anti-cancer drug candidate, and many anti-cancer drugs lead to myelosuppression. In this regard, this study can provide useful information to basic science and clinical researchers.
Abstract : As the mechanism underlying glucose metabolism regulation by oxymatrine is unclear, this study investigated the effects of oxymatrine on pyroptosis in INS-1 cells. Flow cytometry was employed to examine cell pyroptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Cell pyroptosis was also investigated via transmission electron microscopy and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Protein levels were detected using western blotting and interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 secretion by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The caspase-1 activity and DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 protein (Nrf2) were also assessed. In the high glucose and high fat-treated INS-1 cells (HG + PA), the caspase-1 activity and LDH content, as well as Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3, Gsdmd-N, caspase-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD, IL-1β, and IL-18 levels were increased. Moreover, P65 protein levels increased in the nucleus but decreased in the cytoplasm. Oxymatrine attenuated these effects and suppressed high glucose and high fat-induced ROS production. The increased levels of nuclear Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the HG + PA cells were further elevated after oxymatrine treatment, whereas cytoplasmic Nrf2 and Keleh-like ECH-associated protein levels decreased. Additionally, the elevated transcriptional activity of p65 in HG + PA cells was reduced by oxymatrine, whereas that of Nrf2 increased. The results indicate that the inhibition of pyroptosis in INS-1 cells by oxymatrine, a key factor in its glucose metabolism regulation, involves the suppression of the NF-κB pathway and activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.
Abstract : Translocation of azurophil granules is pivotal for bactericidal activity of neutrophils, the first-line defense cells against pathogens. Previously, we reported that lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), an endogenous lipid, enhances bactericidal activity of human neutrophils via increasing translocation of azurophil granules. However, the precise mechanism of LPC-induced azurophil granule translocation was not fully understood. Treatment of neutrophil with LPC significantly increased CD63 (an azurophil granule marker) surface expression. Interestingly, cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of action polymerization, blocked LPC-induced CD63 surface expression. LPC increased F-actin polymerization. LPC-induced CD63 surface expression was inhibited by both a Rho specific inhibitor, Tat-C3 exoenzyme, and a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Y27632 which also inhibited LPC-induced F-actin polymerization. LPC induced Rho-GTP activation. NSC23766, a Rac inhibitor, however, did not affect LPC-induced CD63 surface expression. Theses results suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for azurophil granule translocation where LPC induces translocation of azurophil granules via Rho/ROCK/F-actin polymerization pathway.
Abstract : MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and are biomarkers for coronary atherosclerosis (AS). A novel miRNA-mRNA regulation network of coronary AS still needs to be disclosed. The aim of this study was to analyze potential mRNAs in coronary AS patients and the role of their upstream miR-491-5p in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We first confirmed top ten mRNAs according to the analysis from Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE132651) and examined the expression levels of them in the plaques and serum from AS patients. Five mRNAs (UBE2G2, SLC16A3, POLR2C, PNO1, and AMDHD2) presented significantly abnormal expression in both plaques and serum from AS patients, compared with that in the control groups. Subsequently, they were predicted to be targeted by 11 miRNAs by bioinformatics analysis. Among all the potential upstream miRNAs, only miR-491-5p was abnormally expressed in the plaques and serum from AS patients. Notably, miR-491-5p overexpression inhibited viability and migration, and significantly increased the expression of contractile markers (α-SMA, calponin, SM22α, and smoothelin) in VSMCs. While silencing miR-491-5p promoted viability and migration, and significantly suppressed the expression of α-SMA, calponin, SM22α, and smoothelin. Overall, miR-491-5p targeted UBE2G2, SLC16A3, and PNO1 and regulated the dysfunctions in VSMCs.
Abstract : Determining blood loss [100% – RBV (%)] is challenging in the management of haemorrhagic shock. We derived an equation estimating RBV (%) via serial haematocrits (Hct1, Hct2) by fixing infused crystalloid fluid volume (N) as [0.015 × body weight (g)]. Then, we validated it in vivo. Mathematically, the following estimation equation was derived: RBV (%) = 24k / [(Hct1 / Hct2) – 1]. For validation, nonongoing haemorrhagic shock was induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by withdrawing 20.0%–60.0% of their total blood volume (TBV) in 5.0% intervals (n = 9). Hct1 was checked after 10 min and normal saline N cc was infused over 10 min. Hct2 was checked five minutes later. We applied a linear equation to explain RBV (%) with 1 / [(Hct1 / Hct2) – 1]. Seven rats losing 30.0%–60.0% of their TBV suffered shock persistently. For them, RBV (%) was updated as 5.67 / [(Hct1 / Hct2) – 1] + 32.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] of the slope: 3.14–8.21, p = 0.002, R2 = 0.87). On a Bland-Altman plot, the difference between the estimated and actual RBV was 0.00 ± 4.03%; the 95% CIs of the limits of agreements were included within the pre-determined criterion of validation (< 20%). For rats suffering from persistent, non-ongoing haemorrhagic shock, we derived and validated a simple equation estimating RBV (%). This enables the calculation of blood loss via information on serial haematocrits under a fixed N. Clinical validation is required before utilisation for emergency care of haemorrhagic shock.
Abstract : Aging in mammals, including humans, is accompanied by loss of bone and muscular function and mass, characterized by osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Although resistance exercise training (RET) is considered an effective intervention, its effect is blunted in some elderly individuals. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and its receptor, FGFR, can modulate bone and muscle quality during aging and physical performance. To elucidate this possibility, the FGFR inhibitor NVP-BGJ398 was administrated to C57BL/6n mice for 8 weeks with or without RET. Treatment with NVP-BGJ398 decreased grip strength, muscular endurance, running capacity and bone quality in the mice. FGFR inhibition elevated bone resorption and relevant gene expression, indicating altered bone formation and resorption. RET attenuated tibial bone resorption, accompanied by changes in the expression of relevant genes. However, RET did not overcome the detrimental effect of NVP-BGJ398 on muscular function. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that FGFR signaling may have a potential role in the maintenance of physical performance and quality of bone and muscles.
Kyung Jin Choi, Jin Wook Hwang, Se Hoon Kim et al.
Abstract : Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from enteroendocine L-cells in the intestine has incretin effects due to its ability to amplify glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Promotion of an endogenous release of GLP-1 is one of therapeutic targets for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the secretion of GLP-1 in response to nutrient or neural stimuli can be triggered by cytosolic Ca2+ elevation, the stimulus-secretion pathway is not completely understood yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of reverse Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (rNCX) in Ca2+ entry induced by muscarinic stimulation in NCI-H716 cells, a human enteroendocrine GLP-1 secreting cell line. Intracellular Ca2+ was repetitively oscillated by the perfusion of carbamylcholine (CCh), a muscarinic agonist. The oscillation of cytosolic Ca2+ was ceased by substituting extracellular Na+ with Li+ or NMG+. KB-R7943, a specific rNCX blocker, completely diminished CCh-induced cytosolic Ca2+ oscillation. Type 1 Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) proteins were expressed in NCI-H716 cells. These results suggest that rNCX might play a crucial role in Ca2+ entry induced by cholinergic stimulation in NCI-H716 cells, a GLP-1 secreting cell line.