Abstract : Mitotic arrest deficient 2 like 2 (Mad2L2, also known as Mad2B), the human homologue of the yeast Rev7 protein, is a regulatory subunit of DNA polymerase ζ that shares high sequence homology with Mad2, the mitotic checkpoint protein. Previously, we demonstrated the involvement of Mad2B in the cisplatin-induced DNA damage response. In this study, we extend our findings to show that Mad2B is recruited to sites of DNA damage in human cancer cells in response to cisplatin treatment. We found that in undamaged cells, Mad2B exists in a complex with Polζ-Rev1 and the APC/C subunit Cdc27. Following cisplatin-induced DNA damage, we observed an increase in the recruitment of Mad2B and Cdc20 (the activators of the APC/C), to the complex. The involvement of Mad2B-Cdc20-APC/C during DNA damage has not been reported before and suggests that the APC/C is activated following cisplatin-induced DNA damage. Using an in vitro ubiquitination assay, our data confirmed Mad2B-dependent activation of APC/C in cisplatin-treated cells. Mad2B may act as an accelerator for APC/C activation during DNA damage response. Our data strongly suggest a role for Mad2B-APC/C-Cdc20 in the ubiquitination of proteins involved in the DNA damage response.
Abstract : Diabetic ulcer is usually seen in people with uncontrolled blood sugar. Reportedly, many factors such as impaired glucose metabolism, and macrovascular and microvascular diseases caused angiogenesis disorders and delayed the healing of diabetic ulcers, thus affecting the body's metabolism, nutrition, and immune function. This study aimed to explore the effect of paeonol on skin wound healing in diabetic rats and the related mechanism. A rat model of diabetic ulcer was established. High glucose-treated mouse skin fibroblasts were co-cultured with M1 or M2-polarized macrophages treated with or without paeonol. H&E and Masson staining were used to reveal inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition, respectively. Immunohistochemistry visualized the expression of Ki67, CD31, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Western blot was used to detect interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4, IL-10, CD31, VEGFA, and collagen I/III. The expression of iNOS and arginase 1 was revealed by immunofluorescence staining. Paeonol treatment augmented collagen deposition and the expression of Ki67, CD31, VEGF, and macrophage M2 polarization markers (IL-4 and IL-10) and reduced wound area, inflammatory cell infiltration, and macrophage M1 polarization markers (IL-1β and TNF-α) in the ulcerated area. In vitro, paeonol treatment promoted M2-polarization and repressed M1-polarization in macrophages, thereby improving the repair of cell damage induced by high glucose. Paeonol accelerates the healing of diabetic ulcers by promoting M2 macrophage polarization and inhibiting M1 macrophage polarization.
Abstract : N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ionic glutamine receptors involved in brain development and functions such as learning and memory formation. NMDA receptor inhibition is associated with autophagy activation. In this study, we investigated whether the NMDA receptor antagonists, memantine and ifenprodil, induce autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) to remove Nretinylidene- N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), an intracellular lipofuscin component. Fluorometric analysis using labeled A2E (A2E-BDP) and confocal microscopic examination revealed that low concentrations of NMDA receptor antagonists, which did not induce cytotoxicity, significantly reduced A2E accumulation in ARPE-19 cells. In addition, memantine and ifenprodil activated autophagy in ARPE-19 cells as measured by microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain3-II formation and phosphorylated p62 protein levels. Further, to understand the correlation between memantine- and ifenprodil-mediated A2E degradation and autophagy, autophagy-related 5 (ATG5) was depleted using RNA interference. Memantine and ifenprodil failed to degrade A2E in ARPE-19 cells lacking ATG5. Taken together, our study indicates that the NMDA receptor antagonists, memantine and ifenprodil, can remove A2E accumulated in cells via autophagy activation in ARPE-19 cells.
Abstract : The aim of this study was to investigate the role of kinesin superfamily member 15 (KIF15) in nasopharyngeal carcinogenesis (NPC) and explore its underlying mechanisms. We employed various assays, including the CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, the Transwell and scratch assay, Western blotting, and nude mice transplantation tumor, to investigate the impact of KIF15 on NPC. Our findings demonstrate that KIF15 plays a critical role in the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of NPC cells. Furthermore, we discovered that silencing KIF15 inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion while promoting apoptosis, and that KIF15's effect on NPC cell growth is mediated through the PI3K/AKT and P53 signaling pathways. Additionally, we showed that KIF15 promotes nasopharyngeal cancer cell growth in vivo. Our study sheds light on the significance of KIF15 in NPC by revealing that KIF15 knockdown inhibits NPC cell growth through the regulation of AKT-related signaling pathways. These findings suggest that KIF15 represents a promising therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of NPC.
Abstract : Disulfiram (DSF), a medication for alcoholism, has recently been used as a repurposing drug owing to its anticancer effects. Despite the crucial role of dendritic cells (DCs) in immune homeostasis and cancer therapy, the effects of DSF on the survival and function of DCs have not yet been studied. Therefore, we treated bone marrow-derived DCs with DSF and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and performed various analyses. DCs are resistant to DSF and less cytotoxic than bone marrow cells and spleen cells. The viability and metabolic activity of DCs hardly decreased after treatment with DSF in the absence or presence of LPS. DSF did not alter the expression of surface markers (MHC II, CD86, CD40, and CD54), antigen uptake capability, or the antigen-presenting ability of LPS-treated DCs. DSF decreased the production of interleukin (IL)-12/23 (p40), but not IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor-α, in LPS-treated DCs. We considered the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as a factor to make DCs resistant to DSF-induced cytotoxicity. The resistance of DCs to DSF decreased when GM-CSF was not given or its signaling was inhibited. Also, GM-CSF upregulated the expression of a transcription factor XBP-1 which is essential for DCs’ survival. This study demonstrated for the first time that DSF did not alter the function of DCs, had low cytotoxicity, and induced differential cytokine production.
Abstract : The β subunits of high voltage-gated calcium channels (HGCCs) are essential for optimal channel functions such as channel gating, activation-inactivation kinetics, and trafficking to the membrane. In this study, we report for the first time the potent blood pressure-reducing effects of peptide fragments derived from the β subunits in anesthetized and non-anesthetized rats. Intravenous administration of 16-mer peptide fragments derived from the interacting regions of the β1 [cacb1(344–359)], β2 [cacb2(392–407)], β3 [cacb3(292–307)], and β4 [cacb4(333–348)] subunits with the main α-subunit of HGCC decreased arterial blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner for 5–8 min in anesthetized rats. In contrast, the peptides had no effect on the peak amplitudes of voltage-activated Ca2+ current upon their intracellular application into the acutely isolated trigeminal ganglion neurons. Further, a single mutated peptide of cacb1(344–359)—cacb1(344–359)K357R—showed consistent and potent effects and was crippled by a two-amino acid-truncation at the N-terminal or C-terminal end. By conjugating palmitic acid with the second amino acid (lysine) of cacb1(344–359)K357R (named K2-palm), we extended the blood pressure reduction to several hours without losing potency. This prolonged effect on the arterial blood pressure was also observed in non-anesthetized rats. On the other hand, the intrathecal administration of acetylated and amidated cacb1(344–359)K357R peptide did not change acute nociceptive responses induced by the intradermal formalin injection in the plantar surface of rat hindpaw. Overall, these findings will be useful for developing antihypertensives.
Abstract : Hippo/YAP signaling hinders cancer progression. Inactivation of this pathway contributes to the development of esophageal cancer by activation of Akt. However, the possible interaction between Akt and Hippo/YAP pathways in esophageal cancer progression is unclear. In this study, we found that ursolic acid (UA) plus 3′3-diindolylmethane (DIM) efficiently suppressed the oncogenic Akt/Gsk-3β signaling pathway while activating the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway in esophageal cancer cells. Moreover, the addition of the Akt inhibitor LY294002 and the PI3K inhibitor 3-methyladenine enhanced the inhibitory effects of UA plus DIM on Akt pathway activation and further stimulated the Hippo pathway, including the suppression of YAP nuclear translocation in esophageal cancer cells. Silencing YAP under UA plus DIM conditions significantly increased the activation of the tumor suppressor PTEN in esophageal cancer cells, while decreasing p-Akt activation, indicating that the Akt signaling pathway could be down-regulated in esophageal cancer cells by targeting PTEN. Furthermore, in a xenograft nude mice model, UA plus DIM treatment effectively diminished esophageal tumors by inactivating the Akt pathway and stimulating the Hippo signaling pathway. Thus, our study highlights a feedback loop between the PI3K/Akt and Hippo signaling pathways in esophageal cancer cells, implying that a low dose of UA plus DIM could serve as a promising chemotherapeutic combination strategy in the treatment of esophageal cancer.