Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2023; 27(3): 231-240
Published online May 1, 2023 https://doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2023.27.3.231
Copyright © Korean J Physiol Pharmacol.
Ae-Rang Hwang1, Seonghee Park2,*, and Chang-Hoon Woo1,*
1Department of Pharmacology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 42415, 2Department of Physiology, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul 07084, Korea
Correspondence to:Seonghee Park
Author contributions: A.R.H. performed the all experiments. S.P. and C.H.W. supervised and coordinated the study. A.R.H., S.P., and C.H.W. wrote the manuscript.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the lysosomal accumulations of glycosphingolipids in a variety of cytotypes, which include endothelial cells. The disease is inherited and originates from an error in glycosphingolipid catabolism caused by insufficient α-galactosidase A activity, which causes uncontrolled progressive storage of intracellular globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in the vasculature and extracellular accumulation of lyso-Gb3 (a deacetylated soluble form of Gb3). Necrosis can lead to inflammation, which exacerbates necrosis and creates a positive feedback loop that triggers necroinflammation. However, the role played by necroptosis, a form of programmed necrotic cell death, in the cell-to-cell inflammatory reaction between epithelial and endothelial cells is unclear. Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine whether lyso-Gb3 induces necroptosis and whether necroptosis inhibition protects endothelial dysfunction against lyso-Gb3 inflamed retinal pigment epithelial cells. We found lyso-Gb3 induced necroptosis of a retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) in an autophagy-dependent manner and that conditioned media (CM) from ARPE-19 cells treated with lyso-Gb3 induced the necroptosis, inflammation, and senescence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In addition, a pharmacological study showed CM from lyso-Gb3 treated ARPE-19 cells induced endothelial necroptosis, inflammation, and senescence were significantly inhibited by an autophagy inhibitor (3-MA) and by two necroptosis inhibitors (necrostatin and GSK-872), respectively. These results demonstrate lyso-Gb3 induces necroptosis via autophagy and suggest that lyso-Gb3 inflamed retinal pigment epithelial cells trigger endothelial dysfunction via the autophagy-dependent necroptosis pathway. This study suggests the involvement of a novel autophagy-dependent necroptosis pathway in the regulation of endothelial dysfunction in Fabry disease.
Keywords: Autophagy, Cellular senescence, Glycosphingolipids, Inflammation, Necroptosis
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