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Fig. 2. Sweroside attenuates HG-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in HK-2 cells.
(A) The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and VCAM-1 were detected by qRT-PCR. (B) The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, and VCAM-1 in the culture medium were examined by ELISA. (C) Representative images of DHE fluorescent staining showing ROS production. Scale bar = 50 µM. Values are presented as mean ± SD. SW, sweroside; HK-2 cells, human renal tubular epithelial cell; HG, high glucose; Ctrl, control; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α; IL, interleukin; qRT-PCR, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; ROS, reactive oxygen species. ***p < 0.001, compared with the Ctrl group; NSp > 0.05, #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001, compared with the HG group.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2023;27:533-540 https://doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2023.27.6.533
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