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Fig. 5. Ursolic acid (UA) plus 3,3’-diindolylmethane (DIM) actives the Hippo signaling pathway and down-regulates the target gene CTGF in ESCC.
TE-8 and TE-12 cells were treated with UA (20 μM), DIM (50 μM), or combination treatment for 48 h. Western blot analysis was used to determine the Hippo signaling pathway: (A) Rassf1, Mst1, Mst2, Sav1, Mob-1, and p-Mob1, (B) YAP and p-YAP. (C) The Hippo signaling pathway CTGF mRNA level was detected by real-time PCR and (D) protein levels were examined by Western blot analysis. GAPDH was used as the internal control. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean. CONT, control; ESCC, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; n.s., no significant. *, compared to the control; #, compare with UA plus DIM combination treatment. * or #, p < 0.05; ** or ##, p < 0.01.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2023;27:493-511
© Korean J Physiol Pharmacol