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Fig. 4. Ursolic acid (UA) plus 3,3’-diindolylmethane (DIM) inactivates the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway in ESCC.
After TE-8 and TE-12 cells were treated with UA (20 μM), DIM (50 μM), and a combination for 48 h. Akt/p-Akt and Gsk-3β/p-GSK 3β protein levels were examined by Western blot analysis. The quantification of protein bands was estimated by ImageJ software. GAPDH was used as the internal control. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean. CONT, control; ESCC, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; n.s., no significant. *, compared to the control; #, compare with UA plus DIM combination treatment. * or #, p < 0.05; ** or ##, p < 0.01.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2023;27:493-511
© Korean J Physiol Pharmacol