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Fig. 3. Ursolic acid (UA) plus 3,3’-diindolylmethane (DIM) suppresses cell migration in ESCC.
(A) UA (20 μM) and DIM (50 μM) combination treatment inhibited cell migration in the presence of 5 µg/ml mitomycin-C. Wound healing assays were used to analyze cell migration. TE-8 and TE-12 cell migration rates were measured at 12 h and 24 h after UA or DIM single treatment or a combination and calculated by ImageJ software. (B) UA plus DIM inhibited migration-related protein expression. Migration-related proteins E-cadherin, MMP-13, and MMP-9 were examined by Western blot analysis. GAPDH was used as the internal control. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean. CONT, control; ESCC, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; n.s., no significant. *, compared to the control; #, compare with UA plus DIM combination treatment. * or #, p < 0.05; ** or ##, p < 0.01.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2023;27:493-511
© Korean J Physiol Pharmacol