Multiple linear regression analysis to assess the independent association of BRS, HRV, and AFT parameters (as dependant variables) with MetS risk factors (as independent variables) in the pre-MetS group, adjusted for age, gender, smoking, and alcohol history
Independent variable | Dependent variables in pre-MetS | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
BRS | SDNN | RMSSD | TP | LF/HF | E:I ratio |
30:15 ratio |
ΔDBP_{IHG} | |
WHtR | ||||||||
Beta (standardized) | –0.259 | 0.006 | –0.108 | –0.101 | 0.019 | –0.270 | –0.103 | –0.013 |
p-value | 0.024^{*} | 0.955 | 0.394 | 0.408 | 0.886 | 0.032^{*} | 0.429 | 0.910 |
FPG | ||||||||
Beta (standardized) | –0.418 | –0.134 | –0.273 | –0.250 | 0.222 | –0.303 | –0.353 | 0.325 |
p-value | 0.001^{*} | 0.155 | 0.009^{*} | 0.013^{*} | 0.046^{*} | 0.003^{*} | 0.001^{*} | 0.001^{*} |
TG | ||||||||
Beta (standardized) | –0.006 | –0.050 | –0.141 | –0.063 | 0.102 | –0.144 | –0.105 | 0.195 |
p-value | 0.945 | 0.583 | 0.161 | 0.519 | 0.346 | 0.148 | 0.314 | 0.031^{*} |
HDL | ||||||||
Beta (standardized) | 0.225 | 0.383 | 0.210 | 0.135 | –0.108 | 0.032 | 0.076 | –0.288 |
p-value | 0.020^{*} | 0.001^{*} | 0.051 | 0.193 | 0.346 | 0.759 | 0.492 | 0.003^{*} |
RPP | ||||||||
Beta (standardized) | –0.010 | –0.151 | –0.034 | –0.053 | 0.050 | 0.034 | –0.032 | –0.071 |
p-value | 0.925 | 0.146 | 0.765 | 0.627 | 0.679 | 0.759 | 0.781 | 0.464 |
Body fat% | ||||||||
Beta (standardized) | –0.003 | –0.180 | –0.013 | –0.243 | 0.076 | –0.083 | 0.031 | –0.110 |
p-value | 0.979 | 0.108 | 0.915 | 0.041^{*} | 0.561 | 0.487 | 0.805 | 0.308 |
The values with an asterisk (*) indicate a significant p value (p<0.05). BRS, baroreflex sensitivity; HRV, heart rate variability; AFT, autonomic function test; MetS, metabolic syndrome; SDNN, standard deviation of normal to normal interval; RMSSD, square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal to normal intervals; TP, total power; LF, low-frequency power; HF, high-frequency power; E:I ratio, a ratio of maximum RR interval during expiration to minimum RR interval during inspiration following deep breathing; ΔDBP_{IHG}, a maximum rise in diastolic BP above baseline following sustained handgrip; WHtR, ratio of waist-height; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; TG, triglyceride; HDL, high-density-lipoprotein; RPP, rate pressure product.