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Fig. 1. Lactate-induced synthetic phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). (A) Lactate treatment caused VSMCs to lose their spindle shape and acquire an irregular morphology. Scale bar = 200 μm. (B) CCK-8 assay reveals the cell viability of VSMCs treated with the indicated lactate. (C) VSMC apoptosis was determined using the Tunel assay after treatment with 4 mM lactate (magnification 200×). After treatment with 4 mM lactate, the mitochondrial membrane potential of VSMCs was measured by flow cytometry (E) and quantified (D). (F) The protein levels of apoptosis-associated markers in VSMCs treated with 4 mM lactate were measured. (G) A representative image of the transwell assay was used to determine the migration of VSMCs following treatment with 4 mM lactate (magnification 400×). (H) Using Western blotting, the protein levels of contractile phenotype and synthetic phenotype markers were determined in lactate-treated VSMCs. Values in this figure are presented with mean ± SD. n = 3. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2022;26:519-530
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