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Fig. 1. Diagram of prostanoids and their biological effects on hair follicles through stimulating different type of G protein-coupled receptors. Prostanoids are classified into five types, namely thromboxane A2 (TXA2), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin F2α (PGF), and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2). PGD2 binds to prostaglandin D2 receptors (DP1, DP2), whereas PGE2 binds to prostaglandin E2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, EP4). PGF binds to the prostaglandin F2α receptor (FP). PGI2 binds to the prostaglandin I2 receptor (IP). TXA2 binds to the thromboxane A2 receptor (TP). Human hair follicles remarkably expressed microsomal PGES (mPGES)-1, mPGES-2, and cytosolic PGES (cPGES), which converts PGH2 to PGE2. These human hair follicles also significantly expressed AKR1C3/PGFS, which catalyzes PGH2 to PGF. In addition, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin G2 (PGG2), prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), PGD2 synthase (PGDS), PGE2 synthase (PGES), PGF synthase (PGFS), PGI2 synthase (PGIS) are marked.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2022;26:405-413
© Korean J Physiol Pharmacol