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Fig. 8. A working model of mitochondrial senescence [65]. Replicative senescence induces metabolic changes in mitochondria evident as accumulation of ROS, shutdown of TCA and ETC pathways, glutathione depletion, and energy exhaustion. ROS, reactive oxygen species; ETC, electron transport chain; PFK, phosphofructokinase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; GP, glycogen phosphorylase; H2O2, hydrogen peroxide; SA, superoxide anions; LPO, lipid peroxides; PCC, protein carbonyl content; GSSG, oxidized glutathione; TrxR2, thioredoxin reductase 2; SOD2, superoxide dismutase 2; GPx1, glutathione peroxidase 1; GR, glutathione reductase; GSH, reduced glutathione.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2022;26:263-275
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