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Fig. 3. Mechanisms of lactoferrin (LF) against CKD. LF induces autophagy by activating AMPK and inhibiting the Akt/mTOR pathway. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) causes oxidative stress-induced cell death and apoptosis. LF inhibits cell death and apoptosis by augmenting autophagy and reducing caspase-3. Folic acid induces kidney fibrosis, and LF prevents that by inhibiting apoptosis and inducing autophagy. TGF-β1 induces fibrosis by increasing the expression of PAI-1, CTGF, and collagen-1, and LF inhibits fibrosis by decreasing their expression. A high fat and salt condition promotes inflammation leading to kidney damage. LF inhibits inflammation and protects against kidney damage by reducing inflammatory cytokines. AKT, protein kinase B; AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; Bax, BCL2 associated X; CKD, chronic kidney disease; Col1, collagen 1; CTGF, connective tissue growth factor; IL, interleukin; LC3, light chain 3; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; mTOR, mechanistic target of rapamycin; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; TGF-β1, transforming growth factor beta 1; α-SMA, alpha-smooth muscle actin.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2022;26:1-13 https://doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2022.26.1.1
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