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Fig. 7. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization and ROS levels induced by PAMAMG3 derivative/pJDK-apoptin. (A) GBL-14 cells and (B) human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) were exposed to PAMAMG3, PAMAMG3-KRRR, and PAMAMG3-HKRRR with pJDK or pJDK-apoptin for 24 h. The cells were analyzed for mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) using flow cytometry after JC-1 staining. The number in the bottom right quadrant indicates the percentage of MMP loss. (C, D) Each cell was exposed to similar conditions as those in panel (A). After 24 h post-exposure, intracellular ROS levels were assessed using GSH assay as descried in methods. Values are indicted as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments (n = 3). Statistical analyses were conducted using the unpaired two-tailed Students t-test. Asterisks indicate statistically significant values (**p < 0.01, *p < 0.1, and not significant [n.s.] [p > 0.05]).
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2021;25:467-478
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