Download original image
Fig. 4. DH enhances angiogenic activity by regulating AKT signaling. (A) Protein level expression of AKT and its phosphorylation was evaluated by Western blotting in dose dependent-manner of DH. (B) Quantification of Western blots. (C) Protein level expression of AKT and its phosphorylation was evaluated by Western blots. EPCs were cultured with DMSO, DH, and DH plus AKT inhibitor (5 µM). (D) Quantification of Western blots. (E) Cell treated with DH (0.5 µM) and in the combination with AKT inhibitor (5 µM) for 24 h then proliferation was measured. Scratch wound healing assay was performed to measure wound healing properties and cell migration was measured with the Image J software (NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA). (F) Representative images of the scratch wound healing assay. (H) Carboxy-H2DFFDA was used to measure ROS production. Cells were pretreated with DH with or without AKT inhibitor then ROS was measured by FACS. (I) Quantification of ROS production. Data represent the mean ± SEM. DH, dronedarone hydrochloride; EPC, endothelial progenitor cell; ROS, reactive oxygen species; FACS, fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The results are considered statistically significant at *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 when compared to untreated groups.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2021;25:459-466 https://doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2021.25.5.459
© Korean J Physiol Pharmacol