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Fig. 8. Effect of cardamonin on histopathological testicular changes in different experimental groups. Testis of the control group showing normal seminiferous tubules lined with normal spermatogenic cells with the presence of numerous free spermatids in the lumen (arrow). (B) Testis of the CARD group showing normal seminiferous tubules lined with normal spermatogenic cells with the presence of numerous free spermatids in the lumen (arrow). (C) Testis of untreated DM rats showing a marked loss of spermatogenic epithelial layers and damaged appearance of the basal layer with the complete loss of spermatids in the lumen of seminiferous tubules (arrow). (D) Testis of the DM + GLIB group showing a decrease in the degenerative changes within the spermatogenic epithelial layers (arrow). (E) Testis of the DM + CARD group showing moderate restoration of the spermatogenic epithelial layers with mild appearance of spermatids (arrows). (F) Testis of the DM + GLIB + CARD group showing marked improvement in the spermatogenic epithelial layers with numerous spermatids (arrows). H&E, 200×, bar = 50 µm. CARD, normal rats treated with cardamonin; DM, untreated diabetic group; DM + GLIB, diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide; DM + CARD, diabetic rats treated with cardamonin; DM + GLIB + CARD, diabetic rats treated with both glibenclamide and cardamonin.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2021;25:341-354 https://doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2021.25.4.341
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