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Fig. 7.

Proposed scheme for the antiapoptotic effect of autophagy via ROS regulation in microtubule-regulated and PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs.

PDGF receptor activation induces microtubule dynamic formation in VSMCs for cell proliferation and migration, which can be inhibited by microtubuletargeted drugs such as paclitaxel and vinorelbine, resulting in excessive production of ROS. This causes mitochondria damage, followed by apoptosis. Rapamycin as an autophagy activator can prevent excessive ROS production and apoptosis, resulting in cell viable. Thus, autophagy can act as a defense mechanism in microtubule-regulated VSMCs, and a regulator of apoptosis of conditioned VSMCs.

Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2018;22:349-360 https://doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2018.22.3.349
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