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Fig. 2.

Role of UA in various organs.

UA supplementation or treatment can provide positive health outcomes via diverse molecular signaling and mechanisms under various diseases in multiple organs such as cancer cells, adipose tissue, heart, blood vessel, brain, liver, and skeletal muscle. NF-kB, nuclear factor-kappa B; cyclin D1; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1; CD31, cluster of differentiation 31; STAT3, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; GLUT 4, glucose transporter 4; GSK-3β, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta; HR, heart rate; MAP, mean arterial pressure; TBARS, thiobarbituric reactive substances; CK, creatine kinase; CK-MB, creatine kinase-myocardial band; LDH, lactate dehydrogenease; cTnT, cardiac troponins T; cTnI, cardiac troponin I; HP, lipid hydroperoxides; CD, conjugated dienes; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α; Fas, fatty acid synthase; COX-2, cyclooxygenase; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; IL-1β, interleukin-1 beta; IL-6, interleukin-6; GSH, glutathione; GSSH, oxidized glutathione; SOD, superoxide dismutase; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine transaminase; SREBP, sterol regulatory element-binding protein; ACC, acetyl-coA carboxylase; FAS, fatty acid synthase; ROS, reactive oxygen species; PPAR-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha; CPT-1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1; MuRF1, muscle ring-finger protein-1; SIRT-1, sirtuin-1 and PGC-1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1.

Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2018;22:235-248 https://doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2018.22.3.235
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