Md. Sarwar Zahan, Kazi Ahsan Ahmed, Akhi Moni, Alessandra Sinopoli, Hunjoo Ha, and Md Jamal Uddin
Abstract : Kidney disease is becoming a global public health issue. Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have serious adverse health outcomes. However, there is no effective therapy to treat these diseases. Lactoferrin (LF), a multi-functional glycoprotein, is protective against various pathophysiological conditions in various disease models. LF shows protective effects against AKI and CKD. LF reduces markers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and kidney fibrosis, and induces autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis in the kidney. Although there are no clinical trials of LF to treat kidney disease, several clinical trials and studies on LF-based drug development are ongoing. In this review, we discussed the possible kidney protective mechanisms of LF, as well as the pharmacological and therapeutic advances. The evidence suggests that LF may become a potent pharmacological agent to treat kidney diseases.
Yoonhee Bae, Goo-Young Kim, Flores Jessa, Kyung Soo Ko, and Jin Han
Abstract : The development of selective targeting of drug molecules towards the mitochondria is an important issue related to therapy efficacy. In this study, we report that gallic acid (GA)-mitochondria targeting sequence (MTS)-H3R9 exhibits a dual role as a mitochondria-targeting vehicle with antioxidant activity for disease therapy. In viability assays, GA-MTS-H3R9 showed a better rescue action compared to that of MTS-H3R9. GA-MTS-H3R9 dramatically exhibited cell penetration and intercellular uptake compared to MTS and fit escape from lysosome release to the cytosol. We demonstrated the useful targeting of GA-MTS-H3R9 towards mitochondria in AC16 cells. Also, we observed that the antioxidant properties of mitochondrial-accrued GA-MTSH3R9 alleviated cell damage by reactive oxygen species production and disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential. GA-MTS-H3R9 showed a very increased cytoprotective effect against anticancer activity compared to that of MTS-H3R9. We showed that GA-MTS-H3R9 can act as a vehicle for mitochondria-targeting and as a reagent for therapeutic applications intended for cardiovascular disease treatment.
Abstract : To identify the effect and mechanism of carbon monoxide (CO) on delayed rectifier K+ currents (IK) of human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs), we used the wholecell mode patch-clamp technique. Application of CO delivered by carbon monoxidereleasing molecule-3 (CORM3) increased the amplitude of outward K+ currents, and diphenyl phosphine oxide-1 (a specific IK blocker) inhibited the currents. CORM3- induced augmentation was blocked by pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase blockers (L-NG-monomethyl arginine citrate and L-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester). Pretreatment with KT5823 (a protein kinas G blocker), 1H-[1,-2,-4] oxadiazolo-[4,-3-a] quinoxalin-1-on (ODQ, a soluble guanylate cyclase blocker), KT5720 (a protein kinase A blocker), and SQ22536 (an adenylate cyclase blocker) blocked the CORM3 stimulating effect on IK. In addition, pretreatment with SB239063 (a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] blocker) and PD98059 (a p44/42 MAPK blocker) also blocked the CORM3’s effect on the currents. When testing the involvement of S-nitrosylation, pretreatment of N-ethylmaleimide (a thiol-alkylating reagent) blocked CO-induced IK activation and DL-dithiothreitol (a reducing agent) reversed this effect. Pretreatment with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)-21H,23H porphyrin manganese (III) pentachloride and manganese (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin chloride (superoxide dismutase mimetics), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (an NADPH oxidase blocker), or allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase blocker) also inhibited CO-induced IK activation. These results suggest that CO enhances IK in HCFs through the nitric oxide, phosphorylation by protein kinase G, protein kinase A, and MAPK, S-nitrosylation and reduction/oxidation (redox) signaling pathways.
Kyeong-Rok Kang, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong-Yeon Seo, HyangI Lim, Tae-Hyeon Kim, Sun-Kyoung Yu, Heung-Joong Kim, Chun Sung Kim, Hong Sung Chun, Joo-Cheol Park, and Do Kyung Kim
Abstract : The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological role of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) associated with odontogenic differentiation during tooth development in mice. Mouse dental papilla cell-23 (MDPC- 23) cells cultured in differentiation media were stimulated with the specific NAMPT inhibitor, FK866, and Visfatin (NAMPT) for up to 10 days. The cells were evaluated after 0, 4, 7, and 10 days. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The mineralization assay was performed by staining MDPC-23 cells with Alizarin Red S solution. After cultivation, MDPC-23 cells were harvested for quantitative PCR or Western blotting. Analysis of variance was performed using StatView 5.0 software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The expression of NAMPT increased during the differentiation of murine odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. Furthermore, the up-regulation of NAMPT promoted odontogenic differentiation and accelerated mineralization through an increase in representative odontoblastic biomarkers, such as dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1, and alkaline phosphatase in MDPC-23 cells. However, treatment of the cells with the NAMPT inhibitor, FK866, attenuated odontogenic differentiation, as evidenced by the suppression of odontoblastic biomarkers. These data indicate that NAMPT regulated odontoblastic differentiation through the regulation of odontoblastic biomarkers. The increase in NAMPT expression in odontoblasts was closely related to the formation of the extracellular matrix and dentin via the Runx signaling pathway. Therefore, these data suggest that NAMPT is a critical regulator of odontoblast differentiation during tooth development.
Myoung Cheol Shin, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae-Chul Lee, Hyung Il Kim, Chan Woo Park, Jun Hwi Cho, Dae Won Kim, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Moo-Ho Won, and Choong-Hyun Lee
Abstract : Stiripentol is an anti-epileptic drug for the treating of refractory status epilepticus. It has been reported that stiripentol can attenuate seizure severity and reduce seizure-induced neuronal damage in animal models of epilepsy. The objective of the present study was to investigate effects of post-treatment with stiripentol on cognitive deficit and neuronal damage in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus proper following transient ischemia in the forebrain of gerbils. To evaluate ischemia-induced cognitive impairments, passive avoidance test and 8-arm radial maze test were performed. It was found that post-treatment with stiripentol at 20 mg/kg, but not 10 or 15 mg/kg, reduced ischemia-induced memory impairment. Transient ischemia-induced neuronal death in the CA1 region was also significantly attenuated only by 20 mg/kg stiripentol treatment after transient ischemia. In addition, 20 mg/kg stiripentol treatment significantly decreased ischemia-induced astrocyte damage and immunoglobulin G leakage. In brief, stiripentol treatment after transient ischemia ameliorated transient ischemia-induced cognitive impairment in gerbils, showing that pyramidal neurons were protected and astrocyte damage and blood brain barrier leakage were significantly attenuated in the hippocampus. Results of this study suggest stiripentol can be developed as a candidate of therapeutic drug for ischemic stroke.
Joong-Keun Shin, Wha Young Kim, Haeun Rim, and Jeong-Hoon Kim
Abstract : Phosphorylation levels of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) negatively correlated with psychomotor stimulant-induced locomotor activity. Locomotor sensitization induced by psychomotor stimulants was previously shown to selectively accompany the decrease of GSK3β phosphorylation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) core, suggesting that intact GSK3β activity in this region is necessary for psychomotor stimulants to produce locomotor sensitization. Similarly, GSK3β in the NAcc was also implicated in mediating the conditioned effects formed by the associations of psychomotor stimulants. However, it remains undetermined whether GSK3β plays a differential role in the two sub-regions (core and shell) of the NAcc in the expression of drug-conditioned behaviors. In the present study, we found that GSK3β phosphorylation was significantly lower in the NAcc shell obtained from rats expressing amphetamine (AMPH)-induced conditioned locomotor activity. Further, we demonstrated that these effects were normalized by treatment with lithium chloride, a GSK3β inhibitor. These results suggest that the behavior produced by AMPH itself and a conditioned behavior formed by associations with AMPH are differentially mediated by the two sub-regions of the NAcc.