Shin-Hae Kang, Hwa-Yong Ham, Chang-Won Hong, and Dong-Keun Song
Abstract : Severe bacterial infections are frequently accompanied by depressed neutrophil functions. Thus, agents that increase the microbicidal activity of neutrophils could add to a direct antimicrobial therapy. Lysophosphatidylcholine augments neutrophil bactericidal activity via the glycine (Gly)/glycine receptor (GlyR) α2/TRPM2/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, the direct effect of glycine on neutrophil bactericidal activity was not reported. In this study, the effect of glycine on neutrophil bactericidal activity was examined. Glycine augmented bactericidal activity of human neutrophils (EC50 = 238 μM) in a strychnine (a GlyR antagonist)-sensitive manner. Glycine augmented bacterial clearance in mice, which was also blocked by strychnine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.). Glycine enhanced NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and TRPM2-mediated [Ca2+]i increase in neutrophils that had taken up E. coli . Glycine augmented Lucifer yellow uptake (fluid-phase pinocytosis) and azurophil granule-phagosome fusion in neutrophils that had taken up E. coli in an SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor)-sensitive manner. These findings indicate that glycine augments neutrophil microbicidal activity by enhancing azurophil granule-phagosome fusion via the GlyRα2/ROS/calcium/p38 MAPK pathway. We suggest that glycine could be a useful agent for increasing neutrophil bacterial clearance.
Shiqing Zhang, Peng Sun, Xinru Xiao, Yujie Hu, Yan Qian, and Qian Zhang
Abstract : Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to be involved in airway remodeling and fibrosis of bronchial asthma. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to EMT have yet to be fully clarified. The current study was designed to reveal the potential mechanism of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) affecting EMT through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) were transfected with miR-21 mimics/inhibitors and PARP-1 plasmid/small interfering RNA (siRNA). A dual luciferase reporter assay and biotin-labeled RNA pull-down experiments were conducted to verify the targeting relationship between miR-21 mimics and PARP-1. The migration ability of 16HBE cells was evaluated by Transwell assay. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting experiments were applied to determine the expression of Snail, ZEB1, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Vimentin, and PARP-1. The effects of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 on the migration of 16HBE cells and EMT were investigated. Overexpression of miR-21 mimics induced migration and EMT of 16HBE cells, which was significantly inhibited by overexpression of PARP-1. Our findings showed that PARP-1 was a direct target of miR-21, and that miR-21 targeted PARP-1 to promote migration and EMT of 16HBE cells through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Using LY294002 to block PI3K/AKT signaling pathway resulted in a significant reduction in the migration and EMT of 16HBE cells. These results suggest that miR-21 promotes EMT and migration of HBE cells by targeting PARP-1. Additionally, the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway might be involved in this mechanism, which could indicate its usefulness as a therapeutic target for asthma.
Abstract : Oxytocin is a neuropeptide produced primarily in the hypothalamus and plays an important role in the regulation of mammalian birth and lactation. It has been shown that oxytocin has important cardiovascular protective effects. Here we investigated the effects of oxytocin on vascular reactivity and underlying the mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and in rat aorta ex vivo. Oxytocin increased phospho-eNOS (Ser 1177) and phospho-Akt (Ser 473) expression in HUVECs in vitro and the aorta of rat ex vivo. Wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), inhibited oxytocin-induced Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. In the rat aortic rings, oxytocin induced a biphasic vascular reactivity: oxytocin at low dose (10-9–10-8 M) initiated a vasorelaxation followed by a vasoconstriction at high dose (10-7 M). L-NAME (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), endothelium removal or wortmannin abolished oxytocin-induced vasorelaxation, and slightly enhanced oxytocin-induced vasoconstriction. Atosiban, an oxytocin/vasopressin 1a receptor inhibitor, totally blocked oxytocin-induced relaxation and vasoconstriction. PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) partially inhibited oxytocin-induced vasoconstriction. Oxytocin also increased aortic phospho-ERK1/2 expression, which was reduced by either atosiban or PD98059, suggesting that oxytocin-induced vasoconstriction was partially mediated by oxytocin/V1aR activation of ERK1/2. The present study demonstrates that oxytocin can activate different signaling pathways to cause vasorelaxation or vasoconstriction. Oxytocin stimulation of PI3K/eNOS-derived nitric oxide may participate in maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis, and different vascular reactivities to low or high dose of oxytocin suggest that oxytocin may have different regulatory effects on vascular tone under physiological or pathophysiological conditions.
Hazem K. Ghneim, Mohammad A. Alfhili*, Sami O. Alharbi, Shady M. Alhusayni, Manal Abudawood, Feda S. Aljaser, and Yazeed A. Al-Sheikh
Abstract : There is a paucity of detailed data related to the effect of senescence on the mitochondrial antioxidant capacity and redox state of senescent human cells. Activities of TCA cycle enzymes, respiratory chain complexes, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions (SA), lipid peroxides (LPO), protein carbonyl content (PCC), thioredoxin reductase 2 (TrxR2), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), along with levels of nicotinamide cofactors and ATP content were measured in young and senescent human foreskin fibroblasts. Primary and senescent cultures were biochemically identified by monitoring the augmented cellular activities of key glycolytic enzymes including phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glycogen phosphorylase, and accumulation of H2O2, SA, LPO, PCC, and GSSG. Citrate synthase, aconitase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and complex I-III, IIIII, and IV activities were significantly diminished in P25 and P35 cells compared to P5 cells. This was accompanied by significant accumulation of mitochondrial H2O2, SA, LPO, and PCC, along with increased transcriptional and enzymatic activities of TrxR2, SOD2, GPx1, and GR. Notably, the GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly reduced whereas NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH ratios were significantly elevated. Metabolic exhaustion was also evident in senescent cells underscored by the severely diminished ATP/ADP ratio. Profound oxidative stress may contribute, at least in part, to senescence pointing at a potential protective role of antioxidants in aging-associated disease.
Minji Kang, Ryeon Heo, Seojin Park, Seo-Yeong Mun, Minju Park, Eun-Taek Han, Jin-Hee Han, Wanjoo Chun, Kwon-Soo Ha, Hongzoo Park, Won-Kyo Jung, Il-Whan Choi, and Won Sun Park
Abstract : To investigate the adverse effects of clozapine on cardiovascular ion channels, we examined the inhibitory effect of clozapine on voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels in rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells. Clozapine-induced inhibition of Kv channels occurred in a concentration-dependent manner with an half-inhibitory concentration value of 7.84 ± 4.86 µM and a Hill coefficient of 0.47 ± 0.06. Clozapine did not shift the steady-state activation or inactivation curves, suggesting that it inhibited Kv channels regardless of gating properties. Application of train pulses (1 and 2 Hz) progressively augmented the clozapine-induced inhibition of Kv channels in the presence of the drug. Furthermore, the recovery time constant from inactivation was increased in the presence of clozapine, suggesting that clozapine-induced inhibition of Kv channels is use (state)-dependent. Pretreatment of a Kv1.5 subtype inhibitor decreased the Kv current amplitudes, but additional application of clozapine did not further inhibit the Kv current. Pretreatment with Kv2.1 or Kv7 subtype inhibitors partially blocked the inhibitory effect of clozapine. Based on these results, we conclude that clozapine inhibits arterial Kv channels in a concentrationand use (state)-dependent manner. Kv1.5 is the major subtype involved in clozapine-induced inhibition of Kv channels, and Kv2.1 and Kv7 subtypes are partially involved.
Jaehee Lee, Leejin Park, Hyeyoung Kim, Bong-il Rho, Rafael Taeho Han, Sewon Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Heung Sik Na, and Seung Keun Back
Abstract : Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is known to induce apoptosis of host immune cells and impair phagocytic clearance, thereby being pivotal in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) exert therapeutic effects against inflammatory and immune diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether systemic administration of ASCs restores the phagocytic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and decolonizes cutaneous S. aureus under AD conditions. AD was induced by injecting capsaicin into neonatal rat pups. ASCs were extracted from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of naïve rats and administered to AD rats once a week for a month. Systemic administration of ASCs ameliorated AD-like symptoms, such as dermatitis scores, serum IgE, IFN-γ+/IL-4+ cell ratio, and skin colonization by S. aureus in AD rats. Increased FasL mRNA and annexin V+/7-AAD+ cells in the PBMCs obtained from AD rats were drastically reversed when co-cultured with ASCs. In contrast, both PBMCs and CD163+ cells bearing fluorescent zymosan particles significantly increased in AD rats treated with ASCs. Additionally, the administration of ASCs led to an increase in the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides, such as cathelicidin and β-defensin, in the skin of AD rats. Our results demonstrate that systemic administration of ASCs led to decolonization of S. aureus by attenuating apoptosis of immune cells in addition to restoring phagocytic activity. This contributes to the improvement of skin conditions in AD rats. Therefore, administration of ASCs may be helpful in the treatment of patients with intractable AD.