Abstract : Metabolic syndrome (MBS) is a widespread disease that has strongly related to unhealthy diet and low physical activity, which initiate more serious conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to examine the therapeutic effects of morin, as one of the flavonoids constituents, which widely exists in many herbs and fruits, against some metabolic and hepatic manifestations observed in MBS rats and the feasible related mechanisms. MBS was induced in rats by high fructose diet feeding for 12 weeks. Morin (30 mg/ kg) was administered orally to both normal and MBS rats for 4 weeks. Liver tissues were used for determination of liver index, hepatic expression of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) as well as both inflammatory and fibrotic markers. The fat/muscle ratio, metabolic parameters, systolic blood pressure, and oxidative stress markers were also determined. Our data confirmed that the administration of morin in fructose diet rats significantly reduced the elevated systolic blood pressure. The altered levels of metabolic parameters such as blood glucose, serum insulin, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress markers were also reversed approximately to the normal values. In addition, morin treatment decreased liver index, serum liver enzyme activities, and fat/muscle ratio. Furthermore, morin relatively up-regulated GLUT2 expression, however, down-regulated NF-κB, TNF-α, and TGF-β expressions in the hepatic tissues. Here, we revealed that morin has an exquisite effect against metabolic disorders in the experimental model through, at least in part, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic mechanisms.
Thi Mong Diep Nguyen, Danièle Klett, and Yves Combarnous
Abstract : Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, exhibits various other mechanisms of action in numerous cell types and has been shown to induce cell death in cancer cells, paving the way for its potential use in cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the off-target effects of the anti-depressant drug FLX, on the human ovarian granulosa tumor COV434 cells stimulated by forskolin (FSK), by measuring the real-time kinetics of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP), ATP level, cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) and survival of COV434 cells. We show that incubating COV434 cells with FLX (between 0.6 and 10 µM) induces a decrease in intracellular cAMP response to FSK, a drop in ATP content and stimulates cytoplasmic Ca2+ accumulation in COV434 cells. Only the highest concentrations of FLX (5–10 µM) diminished cell viability. The present report is the first to identify an action mechanism of FLX in human tumor ovarian cells COV434 cells and thus opening the way to potential use of fluoxetine as a complementary tool, in granulosa tumor treatments.
Abstract : Carnosol is a phenolic diterpene phytochemical found in rosemary and sage with reported anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. This study aimed to investigate the effect of carnosol on the lineage commitment of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs) into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Interestingly, carnosol stimulated the early commitment of mBMSCs into osteoblasts in dose-dependent manner as demonstrated by increased levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and Alizarin red staining for matrix mineralization. On the other hand, carnosol significantly suppressed adipogenesis of mBMSCs and downregulated both early and late markers of adipogenesis. Carnosol showed to induce osteogenesis in a mechanism mediated by activating BMP signaling pathway and subsequently upregulating the expression of BMPs downstream osteogenic target genes. In this context, treatment of mBMSCs with LDN-193189, BMPR1 selective inhibitor showed to abolish the stimulatory effect of carnosol on BMP2-induced osteogenesis. In conclusion, our data identified carnosol as a novel osteoanabolic phytochemical that can promote the differentiation of mBMSCs into osteoblasts versus adipocytes by activating BMP-signaling.
Abstract : Several studies have previously reported that exposure to stress provokes behavioral changes, including antinociception, in rodents. In the present study, we studied the effect of acute cold-water (4°C) swimming stress (CWSS) on nociception and the possible changes in several signal molecules in male ICR mice. Here, we show that 3 min of CWSS was sufficient to produce antinociception in tailflick, hot-plate, von-Frey, writhing, and formalin-induced pain models. Significantly, CWSS strongly reduced nociceptive behavior in the first phase, but not in the second phase, of the formalin-induced pain model. We further examined some signal molecules' expressions in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord to delineate the possible molecular mechanism involved in the antinociceptive effect under CWSS. CWSS reduced p-ERK, p-AMPKα1, p-AMPKα2, p-Tyk2, and p-STAT3 expression both in the spinal cord and DRG. However, the phosphorylation of mTOR was activated after CWSS in the spinal cord and DRG. Moreover, p-JNK and p-CREB activation were significantly increased by CWSS in the spinal cord, whereas CWSS alleviated JNK and CREB phosphorylation levels in DRG. Our results suggest that the antinociception induced by CWSS may be mediated by several molecules, such as ERK, JNK, CREB, AMPKα1, AMPKα2, mTOR, Tyk2, and STAT3 located in the spinal cord and DRG.
Abstract : Neuropathic pain (NP) that contributes to the comorbidity between pain and depression is a clinical dilemma. Neuroinflammatory responses are known to have potentially important roles in the initiation of NP and depressive mood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of paeoniflorin (PF) on NP-induced depression-like behaviors by targeting the hippocampal neuroinflammation through the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. We used a murine model of NP caused by unilateral sciatic nerve cuffing (Cuff ). PF was injected intraperitoneally once a day for a total of 14 days. Pain and depression-like behavior changes were evaluated via behavioral tests. Pathological changes in the hippocampus of mice were observed by H&E staining. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus were detected using ELISA. Activated microglia were measured by immunohistochemical staining. The TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathwayassociated protein expression in the hippocampus was detected by western blotting. We found that the PF could significantly alleviate Cuff-induced hyperalgesia and depressive behaviors, lessen the pathological damage to the hippocampal cell, reduce proinflammatory cytokines levels, and inhibit microglial over-activation. Furthermore, PF downregulated the expression levels of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathwayrelated proteins in the hippocampus. These results indicate that PF is an effective drug for improving the comorbidity between NP and depression.
Abstract : Carbon monoxide (CO) is a cardioprotectant and potential cardiovascular therapeutic agent. Human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs) are important determinants of myocardial structure and function. Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel is a potential therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether CO modulates BK channels and the signaling pathways in HCFs using whole-cell mode patch-clamp recordings. CO-releasing molecules (CORMs; CORM-2 and CORM-3) significantly increased the amplitudes of BK currents (IBK). The CO-induced stimulating effects on IBK were blocked by pre-treatment with specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blockers (L-NG-monomethyl arginine citrate and L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester). 8-bromo-cyclic GMP increased IBK. KT5823 (inhibits PKG) or ODQ (inhibits soluble guanylate cyclase) blocked the CO-stimulating effect on IBK. Moreover, 8-bromo-cyclic AMP also increased IBK, and pre-treatment with KT5720 (inhibits PKA) or SQ22536 (inhibits adenylate cyclase) blocked the CO effect. Pre-treatment with Nethylmaleimide (a thiol-alkylating reagent) also blocked the CO effect on IBK, and DLdithiothreitol (a reducing agent) reversed the CO effect. These data suggest that CO activates IBK through NO via the NOS and through the PKG, PKA, and S-nitrosylation pathways.
Abstract : The present study explored the therapeutic potential of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in restoring aging-induced loss of cardioprotective effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) along with the involvement of signaling pathways. The left hind limb was subjected to four short cycles of ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in young and aged male rats to induce RIPC. The hearts were subjected to IR injury on the Langendorff apparatus after 24 h of RIPC. The measurement of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and cardiac troponin served to assess the myocardial injury. The levels of H2S, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) were also measured. There was a decrease in cardioprotection in RIPC-subjected old rats in comparison to young rats along with a reduction in the myocardial levels of H2S, CBS, CSE, HIF-1α, and nuclear: cytoplasmic Nrf2 ratio. Supplementation with sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor) and l-cysteine (H2S precursor) restored the cardioprotective actions of RIPC in old hearts. It increased the levels of H2S, HIF-1α, and Nrf2 ratio without affecting CBS and CSE. YC-1 (HIF-1α antagonist) abolished the effects of NaHS and l-cysteine in RIPC-subjected old rats by decreasing the Nrf2 ratio and HIF-1α levels, without altering H2S.The late phase of cardioprotection of RIPC involves an increase in the activity of H2S biosynthetic enzymes, which increases the levels of H2S to upregulate HIF-1α and Nrf2. H2S has the potential to restore aging-induced loss of cardioprotective effects of RIPC by upregulating HIF-1α/Nrf2 signaling.
Phan Thi Lam Hong, Hyun Jong Kim, Woo Kyung Kim et al.
Abstract : Flos magnoliae (FM), the dry flower buds of Magnolia officinalis or its related species, is a traditional herbal medicine commonly used in Asia for symptomatic relief of and treating allergic rhinitis, headache, and sinusitis. Although several studies have reported the effects of FM on store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) via the ORAI1 channel, which is essential during intracellular calcium signaling cascade generation for T cell activation and mast cell degranulation, the effects of its isolated constituents on SOCE remain unidentified. Therefore, we investigated which of the five major constituents of 30% ethanoic FM (vanillic acid, tiliroside, eudesmin, magnolin, and fargesin) inhibit SOCE and their physiological effects on immune cells. The conventional whole-cell patch clamp results showed that fargesin, magnolin, and eudesmin significantly inhibited SOCE and thus human primary CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation, as well as allergen-induced histamine release in mast cells. Among them, fargesin demonstrated the most potent inhibitory effects not only on ORAI1 (IC50 = 12.46 ± 1.300 µM) but also on T-cell proliferation (by 87.74% ± 1.835%) and mast cell degranulation (by 20.11% ± 5.366%) at 100 µM. Our findings suggest that fargesin can be a promising candidate for the development of therapeutic drugs to treat allergic diseases.