Abstract : Neonatal hypoxia/ischemia (H/I), injures white matter, results in neuronal loss, disturbs myelin formation, and neural network development. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress have been reported in neonatal hypoxic brain injuries. We investigated whether Paeoniflorin treatment reduced H/I-induced inflammation and oxidative stress and improved white matter integrity in a neonatal rodent model. Seven-day old Sprague–Dawley pups were exposed to H/I. Paeoniflorin (6.25, 12.5, or 25 mg/kg body weight) was administered every day via oral gavage from postpartum day 3 (P3) to P14, and an hour before induction of H/I. Pups were sacrificed 24 h (P8) and 72 h (P10) following H/I. Paeoniflorin reduced the apoptosis of neurons and attenuated cerebral infarct volume. Elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3 and Bad were regulated. Paeoniflorin decreased oxidative stress by lowering levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species generation and while, and it enhanced glutathione content. Microglial activation and the TLR4/NF-κB signaling were significantly down-regulated. The degree of inflammatory mediators (interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) were reduced. Paeoniflorin markedly prevented white matter injury via improving expression of myelin binding protein and increasing O1-positive olidgodendrocyte and O4-positive oligodendrocyte counts. The present investigation demonstrates the potent protective efficiency of paeoniflorin supplementation against H/I-induced brain injury by effectually preventing neuronal loss, microglial activation, and white matter injury via reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways.
Abstract : 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27OHChol) exhibits agonistic activity for liver X receptors (LXRs). To determine roles of the LXR agonistic activity in macrophage gene expression, we investigated the effects of LXR inhibition on the 27OHChol-induced genes. Treatment of human THP-1 cells with GSK 2033, a potent cell-active LXR antagonist, results in complete inhibition in the transcription of LXR target genes (such as LXRα and ABCA1) induced by 27OHChol or a synthetic LXR ligand TO 901317. Whereas expression of CCL2 and CCL4 remains unaffected by GSK 2033, TNF-α expression is further induced and 27OHChol-induced CCL3 and CXCL8 genes are suppressed at both the transcriptional and protein translation levels in the presence of GSK 2033. This LXR antagonist downregulates transcript levels and surface expression of CD163 and CD206 and suppresses the transcription of CD14, CD80, and CD86 genes without downregulating their surface levels. GSK 2033 alone had no effect on the basal expression levels of the aforementioned genes. Collectively, these results indicate that LXR inhibition leads to differential regulation of 27-hydroxycholesterolinduced genes in macrophages. We propose that 27OHChol induces gene expression and modulates macrophage functions via LXR-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
Abstract : Bladder cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. Most gene mutations related to bladder cancer are dominantly acquired gene mutations and are not inherited. Previous comparative transcriptome analysis of urinary bladder cancer and control samples has revealed a set of genes that may play a role in tumor progression. Here we set out to investigate further the expression of two candidate genes, centromere protein U (CENPU) and mitochondrial ribosomal protein s28 (MRPS28) to better understand their role in bladder cancer pathogenesis. Our results confirmed that CENPU is up-regulated in human bladder cancer tissues at mRNA and protein levels. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in T24 human urinary bladder cancer cell line revealed a hierarchical relationship between CENPU and MRPS28 in the regulation of cell viability, migration and invasion activity. CENPU expression was also up-regulated in in vivo nude mice xenograft model of bladder cancer and mice overexpressing CENPU had significantly higher tumor volume. In summary, our findings identify CENPU and MRPS28 in the molecular pathogenesis of bladder cancer and suggest that CENPU enhances the progression of bladder cancer by promoting MRPS28 expression.
Abstract : Aging is the process spontaneously occurred in living organisms. Cardiac fibrosis is a pathophysiological process of cardiac aging. Mangiferin is a wellknown C-glucoside xanthone in mango leaves with lots of beneficial properties. In this study, rat model of cardiac fibrosis was induced by injected with 150 mg/kg/d Dgalactose for 8 weeks. The age-related cardiac decline was estimated by detecting the relative weight of heart, the serum levels of cardiac injury indicators and the expression of hypertrophic biomakers. Cardiac oxidative stress and local inflammation were measured by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde, enzymatic antioxidant status and proinflammatory cytokines. Cardiac fibrosis was evaluated by observing collagen deposition via masson and sirius red staining, as well as by examining the expression of extracellular matrix proteins via Western blot analysis. The cardiac activity of profibrotic TGF-β1/p38/MK2 signaling pathway was assessed by measuring the expression of TGF-β1 and the phosphorylation levels of p38 and MK2. It was observed that mangiferin ameliorated D-galactose-induced cardiac aging, attenuated cardiac oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis, as well as inhibited the activation of TGF-β1/p38/MK2 signaling pathway. These results showed that mangiferin could ameliorate cardiac fibrosis in D-galactose-induced aging rats possibly via inhibiting TGF-β/p38/MK2 signaling pathway.
Abstract : Mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) produces NADPH, which is known to inhibit mitochondrial oxidative stress. Ureteral obstruction induces kidney inflammation and fibrosis via oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the role and underlying mechanism of IDH2 in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced kidney inflammation using IDH2 gene deleted mice (IDH2–/–). Eight- to 10-week-old female IDH2–/– mice and wild type (IDH2+/+) littermates were subjected to UUO and kidneys were harvested 5 days after UUO. IDH2 was not detected in the kidneys of IDH2–/– mice, while UUO decreased IDH2 in IDH2+/+ mice. UUO increased the expressions of markers of oxidative stress in both IDH2+/+ and IDH2–/– mice, and these changes were greater in IDH2–/– mice compared to IDH2+/+ mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages of IDH2–/– mice showed a more migrating phenotype with greater ruffle formation and Rac1 distribution than that of IDH2+/+ mice. Correspondently, UUO-induced infiltration of monocytes/macrophages was greater in IDH2–/– mice compared to IDH2+/+ mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that IDH2 plays a protective role against UUO-induced inflammation through inhibition of oxidative stress and macrophage infiltration.
Abstract : Coronary microembolization (CME) is associated with cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. Puerarin confers protection against multiple cardiovascular diseases, but its effects and specific mechanisms on CME are not fully known. Hence, our study investigated whether puerarin pretreatment could alleviate cardiomyocyte apoptosis and improve cardiac function following CME. The molecular mechanism associated was also explored. A total of 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into CME, CME + Puerarin (CME + Pue), sham, and sham + Puerarin (sham + Pue) groups (with 12 rats per group). A CME model was established in CME and CME + Pue groups by injecting 42 μm microspheres into the left ventricle of rats. Rats in the CME + Pue and sham + Pue groups were intraperitoneally injected with puerarin at 120 mg/kg daily for 7 days before operation. Cardiac function, myocardial histopathology, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis index were determined via cardiac ultrasound, hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and hematoxylin-basic fuchsin-picric acid (HBFP) stainings, and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. Western blotting was used to measure protein expression related to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) pathway. We found that, puerarin significantly ameliorated cardiac dysfunction after CME, attenuated myocardial infarct size, and reduced myocardial apoptotic index. Besides, puerarin inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis, as revealed by decreased Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and up-regulated Bcl-2 and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway related proteins. Collectively, puerarin can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis and thus attenuate myocardial injury caused by CME. Mechanistically, these effects may be achieved through activation of the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway.
Abstract : Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOXs) are the major enzymatic source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NOX2 and NOX4 are expressed in the heart but its role in hypoxia-induced atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion is unclear. This study investigated the effect of NOX on ANP secretion induced by hypoxia in isolated beating rat atria. The results showed that hypoxia significantly upregulated NOX4 but not NOX2 expression, which was completely abolished by endothelin-1 (ET-1) type A and B receptor antagonists BQ123 (0.3 µM) and BQ788 (0.3 µM). ET-1-upregulated NOX4 expression was also blocked by antagonists of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2; varespladib, 5.0 µM) and cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2; CAY10650, 120.0 nM), and ET-1-induced cPLA2 expression was inhibited by varespladib under normoxia. Moreover, hypoxia-increased ANP secretion was evidently attenuated by the NOX4 antagonist GLX351322 (35.0 µM) and inhibitor of ROS N-Acetyl-D-cysteine (NAC, 15.0 mM), and hypoxia-increased production of ROS was blocked by GLX351322. In addition, hypoxia markedly upregulated Src expression, which was blocked by ET receptors, NOX4, and ROS antagonists. ET-1-increased Src expression was also inhibited by NAC under normoxia. Furthermore, hypoxiaactivated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) were completely abolished by Src inhibitor 1 (1.0 µM), and hypoxia-increased GATA4 was inhibited by the ERK1/2 and Akt antagonists PD98059 (10.0 µM) and LY294002 (10.0 µM), respectively. However, hypoxia-induced ANP secretion was substantially inhibited by Src inhibitor. These results indicate that NOX4/Src modulated by ET-1 regulates ANP secretion by activating ERK1/2 and Akt/GATA4 signaling in isolated beating rat hypoxic atria.
Abstract : Far-infrared rays (FIR) are known to have various effects on atoms and molecular structures within cells owing to their radiation and vibration frequencies. The present study examined the effects of FIR on gene expression related to glucose transport through microarray analysis in rat skeletal muscle cells, as well as on mitochondrial biogenesis, at high and low glucose conditions. FIR were emitted from a bio-active material coated fabric (BMCF). L6 cells were treated with 30% BMCF for 24 h in medium containing 25 or 5.5 mM glucose, and changes in the expression of glucose transporter genes were determined. The expression of GLUT3 (Slc2a3) increased 2.0-fold (p < 0.05) under 5.5 mM glucose and 30% BMCF. In addition, mitochondrial oxygen consumption and membrane potential (ΔΨm) increased 1.5- and 3.4-fold (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001), respectively, but no significant change in expression of Pgc-1a, a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, was observed in 24 h. To analyze the relationship between GLUT3 expression and mitochondrial biogenesis under FIR, GLUT3 was down-modulated by siRNA for 72 h. As a result, the ΔΨm of the GLUT3 siRNA-treated cells increased 3.0-fold (p < 0.001), whereas that of the control group increased 4.6-fold (p < 0.001). Moreover, Pgc-1a expression increased upon 30% BMCF treatment for 72 h; an effect that was more pronounced in the presence of GLUT3. These results suggest that FIR may hold therapeutic potential for improving glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function in metabolic diseases associated with insufficient glucose supply, such as type 2 diabetes.