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Original Article

Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2021; 25(2): 159-166

Published online March 1, 2021 https://doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2021.25.2.159

Copyright © Korean J Physiol Pharmacol.

NOX4/Src regulates ANP secretion through activating ERK1/2 and Akt/GATA4 signaling in beating rat hypoxic atria

Cheng-zhe Wu1,2,#, Xiang Li1,#, Lan Hong1, Zhuo-na Han1, Ying Liu1, Cheng-xi Wei3,*, and Xun Cui1,4,*

1Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Yanbian University, 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, Yanbian University, Yanji 133-002, 3Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao 028000, 4Cellular Function Research Center, Yanbian University, Yanji 133-002, China

Correspondence to:Xun Cui
E-mail: cuixun@ybu.edu.cn
Cheng-xi Wei
E-mail: weichengxi1224@163.com
#These authors contributed equally to this work.

Received: September 11, 2020; Revised: December 24, 2020; Accepted: December 29, 2020

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOXs) are the major enzymatic source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NOX2 and NOX4 are expressed in the heart but its role in hypoxia-induced atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion is unclear. This study investigated the effect of NOX on ANP secretion induced by hypoxia in isolated beating rat atria. The results showed that hypoxia significantly upregulated NOX4 but not NOX2 expression, which was completely abolished by endothelin-1 (ET-1) type A and B receptor antagonists BQ123 (0.3 µM) and BQ788 (0.3 µM). ET-1-upregulated NOX4 expression was also blocked by antagonists of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2; varespladib, 5.0 µM) and cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2; CAY10650, 120.0 nM), and ET-1-induced cPLA2 expression was inhibited by varespladib under normoxia. Moreover, hypoxia-increased ANP secretion was evidently attenuated by the NOX4 antagonist GLX351322 (35.0 µM) and inhibitor of ROS N-Acetyl-D-cysteine (NAC, 15.0 mM), and hypoxia-increased production of ROS was blocked by GLX351322. In addition, hypoxia markedly upregulated Src expression, which was blocked by ET receptors, NOX4, and ROS antagonists. ET-1-increased Src expression was also inhibited by NAC under normoxia. Furthermore, hypoxiaactivated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) were completely abolished by Src inhibitor 1 (1.0 µM), and hypoxia-increased GATA4 was inhibited by the ERK1/2 and Akt antagonists PD98059 (10.0 µM) and LY294002 (10.0 µM), respectively. However, hypoxia-induced ANP secretion was substantially inhibited by Src inhibitor. These results indicate that NOX4/Src modulated by ET-1 regulates ANP secretion by activating ERK1/2 and Akt/GATA4 signaling in isolated beating rat hypoxic atria.

Keywords: Atrial natriuretic peptide, Endothelin-1, Hypoxia, NADPH oxidase, Src tyrosine kinase