pISSN 1226-4512 eISSN 2093-3827

Current Issue

home Article Current Issue
    March, 2020 | Volume 24, No. 2
  • Review Article 2020-03-01

    Connecting the dots between SHP2 and glutamate receptors

    Hyun-Hee Ryu, Sun Yong Kim, and Yong-Seok Lee

    Abstract : SHP2 is an unusual protein phosphatase that functions as an activator for several signaling pathways, including the RAS pathway, while most other phosphatases suppress their downstream signaling cascades. The physiological and pathophysiological roles of SHP2 have been extensively studied in the field of cancer research. Mutations in the PTPN11 gene which encodes SHP2 are also highly associated with developmental disorders, such as Noonan syndrome (NS), and cognitive deficits including learning disabilities are common among NS patients. However, the molecular and cellular mechanism by which SHP2 is involved in cognitive functions is not well understood. Recent studies using SHP2 mutant mice or pharmacological inhibitors have shown that SHP2 plays critical role in learning and memory and synaptic plasticity. Here, we review the recent studies demonstrating that SHP2 is involved in synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory, by the regulation of the expression and/or function of glutamate receptors. We suggest that each cell type may have distinct paths connecting the dots between SHP2 and glutamate receptors, and these paths may also change with aging.

    Show More  
  • Original Article 2020-03-01

    Lovastatin derivative dehydrolovastatin ameliorates ulcerative colitis in mice by suppressing NF-ΚB and inflammatory cytokine expression

    Xu Zhang, Qing-Hua Deng, Jian-Hua Deng, Sheng-Ju Wang, and Qiu Chen

    Abstract : Ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with intestinal immune imbalance and inflammatory response. Because dehydrolovastatin (DLVT), a derivative of lovastatin, has been recently shown to inhibit inflammation and relieve immune arthritis induced by chemical stimuli, we studied its effect and possible mechanism on UC induced by dextran sulfate sodium. The BALB/c mice were classified into six groups: normal control group, model group, DLVT high dose group, DLVT low dose group, salazosulfapyridine (SASP) group and lovastatin (LVT) group. The disease activity indices of UC and pathological changes were investigated. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in colon tissue and inflammatory factors such as IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and TNF-α in the serum were analyzed by ELISA, while the expression of NF-ΚB p65 protein in colon tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. DLVT relieved the disease activity indices and pathological damage of the UC mice. Furthermore, DLVT significantly decreased MPO activity and improved the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines through inhibiting the expression of NF-ΚB p65. Meanwhile, the positive drug of SASP has a similar effect to DLVT, but the effect of DLVT in both decreasing IL-17, TNF-α, and increasing IL-10 was significantly stronger than that of SASP. These results suggest that DLVT may ameliorates the symptoms of UC.

    Show More  
  • Original Article 2020-03-01

    Inhibition of melanogenesis by sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate

    Jeong-Hwan Kim, Chang-Taek Oh, Tae-Rin Kwon, Jong Hwan Kim, Dong-Ho Bak, Hyuk Kim, Won-Seok Park, and Beom Joon Kim

    Abstract : Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (mesna) is a protective agent that is widely used in medicine because of its antioxidant effects. Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to increase pigmentation. Thus, ROS scavengers and inhibitors of ROS production may suppress melanogenesis. Forkhead box-O3a (FoxO3a) is an antimelanogenic factor that mediates ROS-induced skin pigmentation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the whitening effect of mesna and the signaling mechanism mediating this effect. Human melanoma (MNT-1) cells were used in this study. mRNA and protein expression were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting analysis to track changes in FoxO3a-related signals induced by mesna. An immunofluorescence assay was performed to determine the nuclear translocation of FoxO3a. When MNT-1 melanoma cells were treated with mesna, melanin production and secretion decreased. These effects were accompanied by increases in FoxO3a activation and nuclear translocation, resulting in downregulation of four master genes of melanogenesis: MITF, TYR, TRP1, and TRP2. We found that mesna, an antioxidant and radical scavenger, suppresses melanin production and may therefore be a useful agent for the clinical treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders.

    Show More  
  • Original Article 2020-03-01

    Eupatilin downregulates phorbol 12‐myristate 13‐acetate-induced MUC5AC expression via inhibition of p38/ERK/JNK MAPKs signal pathway in human airway epithelial cells

    Yoon-Hee Cheon, Min Seob Kim, Ju-Young Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Seung Yoon Han, and Jae-Hoon Lee

    Abstract : Chronic inflammatory airway diseases, such as chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma, are associated with excessive mucus production. Hence, the regulation of mucus production is important for the treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Eupatilin is a pharmacologically active ingredient obtained from Artemisia asiatica Nakai (Asteraceae) and exerts potent anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-tumor activities. In the present study, we investigated the effect of eupatilin on phorbol 12‐myristate 13‐acetate (PMA)-induced MUC5AC and MUC5B expression in human airway epithelial cells. We found that eupatilin treatment significantly inhibited PMA-induced mucus secretion in PAS staining. In addition, qRT-PCR results showed that eupatilin dose-dependently decreased the mRNA expression of MUC5AC in human airway epithelial cells. Western blot and immunofluorescence assay also showed that PMA-induced protein expression of MUC5AC was inhibited by eupatilin treatment. Finally, we investigated MAPKs activity after stimulation with PMA using western blot analysis in human airway epithelial cells. The results showed that eupatilin downregulated the levels of phosphorylated p38, ERK, and JNK. In summary, the anti-inflammatory activities of eupatilin, characterized as the suppression of MUC5AC expression and secretion in human airway epithelial cells, were found to be associated with the inhibition of p38/ERK/JNK MAPKs signaling pathway of MUC5AC secretion.

    Show More  
  • Original Article 2020-03-01

    Changes in plasma lipoxin A4, resolvins and CD59 levels after ischemic and traumatic brain injuries in rats

    Jun-Sub Jung, A Ra Kho, Song Hee Lee, Bo Young Choi, Shin-Hae Kang, Jae-Young Koh, Sang Won Suh, and Dong-Keun Song

    Abstract : Ischemic and traumatic brain injuries are the major acute central nervous system disorders that need to be adequately diagnosed and treated. To find biomarkers for these acute brain injuries, plasma levels of some specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs, i.e., lipoxin A4 [LXA4], resolvin [Rv] E1, RvE2, RvD1 and RvD2), CD59 and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured at 0, 6, 24, 72, and 168 h after global cerebral ischemic (GCI) and traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in rats. Plasma LXA4 levels tended to increase at 24 and 72 h after GCI. Plasma RvE1, RvE2, RvD1, and RvD2 levels showed a biphasic response to GCI; a significant decrease at 6 h with a return to the levels of the sham group at 24 h, and again a decrease at 72 h. Plasma CD59 levels increased at 6 and 24 h post-GCI, and returned to basal levels at 72 h post-GCI. For TBI, plasma LXA4 levels tended to decrease, while RvE1, RvE2, RvD1, and RvD2 showed barely significant changes. Plasma IL-6 levels were significantly increased after GCI and TBI, but with different time courses. These results show that plasma LXA4, RvE1, RvE2, RvD1, RvD2, and CD59 levels display differential responses to GCI and TBI, and need to be evaluated for their usefulness as biomarkers.

    Show More  
  • Original Article 2020-03-01

    The optimal model of reperfusion injury in vitro using H9c2 transformed cardiac myoblasts

    Euncheol Son, Dongju Lee, Chul-Woong Woo, Young-Hoon Kim

    Abstract : An in vitro model for ischemia/reperfusion injury has not been well-established. We hypothesized that this failure may be caused by serum deprivation, the use of glutamine-containing media, and absence of acidosis. Cell viability of H9c2 cells was significantly decreased by serum deprivation. In this condition, reperfusion damage was not observed even after simulating severe ischemia. However, when cells were cultured under 10% dialyzed FBS, cell viability was less affected compared to cells cultured under serum deprivation and reperfusion damage was observed after hypoxia for 24 h. Reperfusion damage after glucose or glutamine deprivation under hypoxia was not significantly different from that after hypoxia only. However, with both glucose and glutamine deprivation, reperfusion damage was significantly increased. After hypoxia with lactic acidosis, reperfusion damage was comparable with that after hypoxia with glucose and glutamine deprivation. Although high-passage H9c2 cells were more resistant to reperfusion damage than low-passage cells, reperfusion damage was observed especially after hypoxia and acidosis with glucose and glutamine deprivation. Cell death induced by reperfusion after hypoxia with acidosis was not prevented by apoptosis, autophagy, or necroptosis inhibitors, but significantly decreased by ferrostatin-1, a ferroptosis inhibitor, and deferoxamine, an iron chelator. These data suggested that in our SIR model, cell death due to reperfusion injury is likely to occur via ferroptosis, which is related with ischemia/reperfusion-induced cell death in vivo. In conclusion, we established an optimal reperfusion injury model, in which ferroptotic cell death occurred by hypoxia and acidosis with or without glucose/glutamine deprivation under 10% dialyzed FBS.

    Show More  
  • Original Article 2020-03-01

    Association between interstitial cells of Cajal and anti-vinculin antibody in human stomach

    Ji Hyun Kim, Seung-Joo Nam, Sung Chul Park, Sang Hoon Lee, Tae Suk Kim, Minjong Lee, Jin Myung Park, Dae Hee Choi, Chang Don Kang, Sung Joon Lee, Young Joon Ryu, Kyungyul Lee, and So Young Park

    Abstract : Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are known as the pacemaker cells of gastrointestinal tract, and it has been reported that acute gastroenteritis induces intestinal dysmotility through antibody to vinculin, a cytoskeletal protein in gut, resulting in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, so that anti-vinculin antibody can be used as a biomarker for irritable bowel syndrome. This study aimed to determine correlation between serum anti-vinculin antibody and ICC density in human stomach. Gastric specimens from 45 patients with gastric cancer who received gastric surgery at Kangwon National University Hospital from 2013 to 2017 were used. ICC in inner circular muscle, and myenteric plexus were counted. Corresponding patient’s blood samples were used to determine the amount of anti-vinculin antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analysis was done to determine correlation between anti-vinculin antibody and ICC numbers. Patients with elevated anti-vinculin antibody titer (above median value) had significantly lower number of ICC in inner circular muscle (71.0 vs. 240.5, p = 0.047), and myenteric plexus (12.0 vs. 68.5, p < 0.01) compared to patients with lower anti-vinculin antibody titer. Level of serum anti-vinculin antibody correlated significantly with density of ICC in myenteric plexus (r = –0.379, p = 0.01; Spearman correlation). Increased level of circulating anti-vinculin antibody was significantly correlated with decreased density of ICC in myenteric plexus of human stomach.

    Show More  

Current Issue

March, 2020
Vol.24 No.2

Current Issue
All Issues

Journal Impact Factor (2018) 1.654

Most Read

Close ✕