Qianqian Shan, Shengsheng Li, Qiyu Cao, Chenglong Yue, Mingshan Niu, Xiangyu Chen, Lin Shi, Huan Li, Shangfeng Gao, Jun Liang, Rutong Yu, and Xuejiao Liu
Abstract : Chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1) is associated with an adverse prognosis in glioma. We previously reported that CRM1 inhibition suppressed glioma cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the role of CRM1 in the migration and invasion of glioma cells. S109, a novel reversible selective inhibitor of CRM1, was used to treat Human glioma U87 and U251 cells. Cell migration and invasion were evaluated by wound-healing and transwell invasion assays. The results showed that S109 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of U87 and U251 cells. However, mutation of Cys528 in CRM1 abolished the inhibitory activity of S109 in glioma cells. Furthermore, we found that S109 treatment decreased the expression level and activity of MMP2 and reduced the level of phosphorylated STAT3 but not total STAT3. Therefore, the inhibition of migration and invasion induced by S109 may be associated with the downregulation of MMP2 activity and expression, and inactivation of the STAT3 signaling pathway. These results support our previous conclusion that inhibition of CRM1 is an attractive strategy for the treatment of glioma.
Jiwoo Lim, Ji Ha Choi, Eun-Mi Park, and Youn-Hee Choi
Abstract : Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene, through alternative splicing of its C-terminal region, generates several PML isoforms that interact with specific partners and perform distinct functions. The PML protein is a tumor suppressor that plays an important role by interacting with various proteins. Herein, we investigated the effect of the PML isoforms on oncostatin M (OSM)-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) transcriptional activity. PML influenced OSM-induced STAT-3 activity in a cell type-specific manner, which was dependent on the p53 status of the cells but regardless of PML isoform. Interestingly, overexpression of PML exerted opposite effects on OSM-induced STAT-3 activity in p53 wild-type and mutant cells. Specifically, overexpression of PML in the cell lines bearing wild-type p53 (NIH3T3 and U87-MG cells) decreased OSM-induced STAT-3 transcriptional activity, whereas overexpression of PML increased OSM-induced STAT-3 transcriptional activity in mutant p53-bearing cell lines (HEK293T and U251-MG cells). When wild-type p53 cells were co-transfected with PML-IV and R273H-p53 mutant, OSM-mediated STAT-3 transcriptional activity was significantly enhanced, compared to that of cells which were transfected with PML-IV alone; however, when cells bearing mutant p53 were co-transfected with PML-IV and wild-type p53, OSM-induced STAT-3 transcriptional activity was significantly decreased, compared to that of transfected cells with PML-IV alone. In conclusion, PML acts together with wild-type or mutant p53 and influences OSM-mediated STAT-3 activity in a negative or positive manner, resulting in the aberrant activation of STAT-3 in cancer cells bearing mutant p53 probably might occur through the interaction of mutant p53 with PML.
Abstract : Salvianolic acid B (SAB) is an active phytocomponent of a popular Chinese herb called Radix Salvia militiorrhiza with numerous biological properties. The anti-psoriasis activity of SAB was examined by evaluating various psoriasis inflammatory and keratin markers against imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis on BALB/c mice. Totally 50 healthy BALB/c mice were evenly divided into 5 groups including control, drug control (SAB; 40 mg/kg), IMQ-induced psoriasis (5%), IMQ exposure and treated with SAB (40 mg/kg), or standard methotrexate (MTX; 1 mg/kg). Mice supplemented with either SAB or MTX significantly lowered the values of psoriasis area severity index (PASI), erythema, scaling, skin thickness, inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-22/23/17A/1β/6) and lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde). Also, IMQ exposed BALB/c mice treated with SAB or MTX display lesser histopathological changes with enhanced antioxidant activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase). Moreover, the protein expression of keratin markers (K16 and K17) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling proteins (pAkt/Akt and pPI3K/PI3K) were significantly downregulated after administration with SAB and MTX as compared with IMQ induced mice. Taking together, SAB and MTX significantly ameliorate psoriatic changes by inhibiting psoriatic inflammatory and keratin markers through abolishing PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. However, further studies (clinical trials) are needed to confirm the anti-psoriatic property of SAB before recommending to psoriasis patients.
Shasha Yang, Xiangdan Li, Haowen Dou, Yulai Hu, Chengri Che, and Dongyuan Xu
Abstract : Sesamin, a lipid-soluble lignin originally isolated from sesame seeds, which induces cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy. In the present study, has been reported that sesamin induces apoptosis via several pathways in human lung cancer cells. However, whether mitophagy is involved in sesamin induced lung cancer cell apotosis remains unclear. This study, the anticancer activity of sesamin in lung cancer was studied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitophagy. A549 cells were treated with sesamin, and cell viability, migration ability, and cell cycle were assessed using the CCK8 assay, scratch-wound test, and flow cytometry, respectively. ROS levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometric detection of DCFH-DA fluorescence and by using JC-1 and TUNEL assays. The results indicated that sesamin treatment inhibited the cell viability and migration ability of A549 cells and induced G0/G1 phase arrest. Furthermore, sesamin induced an increase in ROS levels, a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis accompanied by an increase in cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. Additionally, sesamin triggered mitophagy and increased the expression of PINK1 and translocation of Parkin from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria. However, the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine clearly reduced the oxidative stress and mitophagy induced by sesamin. Furthermore, we found that cyclosporine A (an inhibitor of mitophagy) decreased the inhibitory effect of sesamin on A549 cell viability. Collectively, our data indicate that sesamin exerts lethal effects on lung cancer cells through the induction of ROS-mediated mitophagy and mitochondrial apoptosis.
Abstract : Autophagy regulators are often effective as potential cancer therapeutic agents. Here, we investigated paclitaxel sensitivity in cells with knockout (KO) of ATG5 gene. The ATG5 KO in multidrug resistant v-Ha-ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells (Ras-NIH 3T3/Mdr) was generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The qPCR and LC3 immunoblot confirmed knockout of the gene and protein of ATG5, respectively. The ATG5 KO restored the sensitivity of Ras-NIH 3T3/Mdr cells to paclitaxel. Interestingly, ATG5 overexpression restored autophagy function in ATG5 KO cells, but failed to rescue paclitaxel resistance. These results raise the possibility that low level of resistance to paclitaxel in ATG5 KO cells may be related to other roles of ATG5 independent of its function in autophagy. The ATG5 KO significantly induced a G2/M arrest in cell cycle progression. Additionally, ATG5 KO caused necrosis of a high proportion of cells after paclitaxel treatment. These data suggest that the difference in sensitivity to paclitaxel between ATG5 KO and their parental MDR cells may result from the disparity in the proportions of necrotic cells in both populations. Thus, our results demonstrate that the ATG5 KO in paclitaxel resistant cells leads to a marked G2/M arrest and sensitizes cells to paclitaxel-induced necrosis.
Jisu Kim, Kang Pa Lee, Bom Sahn Kim, Sang Ju Lee, Byung Seok Moon, and Suji Baek
Abstract : Luminespib (AUY922), a heat shock proteins 90 inhibitor, has anti-neoplastic and antitumor effects. However, it is not clear whether AUY922 affects events in vascular diseases. We investigated the effects of AUY922 on the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). VSMC viability was detected using the XTT (2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) reagent. To detect the attenuating effects of AUY922 on PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs migration in vitro, we performed the Boyden chamber and scratch wound healing assays. To identify AUY922-mediated changes in the signaling pathway, the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was analyzed by immunoblotting. The inhibitory effects of AUY922 on migration and proliferation ex vivo were tested using an aortic ring assay. AUY922 was not cytotoxic at concentrations up to 5 nM. PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, migration, and sprout outgrowth were significantly decreased by AUY922 in a dose-dependent manner. AUY922 significantly reduced the PDGF-BB-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Furthermore, PD98059 (a selective ERK1/2 inhibitor) and LY294002 (a selective Akt inhibitor) decreased VSMC migration and proliferation by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Greater attenuation of PDGF-BB-induced cell viability and migration was observed upon treatment with PD98059 or LY294002 in combination with AUY922. AUY922 showed anti-proliferation and anti-migration effects towards PDGF-BBinduced VSMCs by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. Thus, AUY922 is a candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis and restenosis.
Yo-Seob Seo, In-A Cho, Tae-Hyeon Kim, Jae-Seek You, Ji-Su Oh, Gyeong-Je Lee, Do Kyung Kim, and Jae-Sung Kim
Abstract : The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathophysiological etiology of osteoarthritis that is mediated by the apoptosis of chondrocytes exposed to 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC), an oxysterol synthesized by the expression of cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (CH25H) under inflammatory conditions. Interleukin-1β induced the apoptosis of chondrocytes in a dose- dependent manner. Furthermore, the production of 25-HC increased in the chondrocytes treated with interleukin-1β through the expression of CH25H. 25-HC decreased the viability of chondrocytes. Chondrocytes with condensed nucleus and apoptotic populations increased by 25-HC. Moreover, the activity and expression of caspase-3 were increased by the death ligand-mediated extrinsic and mitochondria-dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathways in the chondrocytes treated with 25-HC. Finally, 25-HC induced not only caspase-dependent apoptosis, but also induced proteoglycan loss in articular cartilage ex vivo cultured rat knee joints. These data indicate that 25-HC may act as a metabolic pathophysiological factor in osteoarthritis that is mediated by progressive chondrocyte death in the articular cartilage with inflammatory condition.
Abstract : Cardiovascular diseases are the primary reason of mortality, among which myocardial infarction (MI) is the most dominant and prevalent. This study was considered to examine D-Limonene protective action against isoproterenol (ISO) induced MI. Wister male rats were dispersed into four groups. Normal and D-Limonene control group in which rats administered saline or D-Limonene. ISO control animals were administered saline for 21 days then challenged with ISO (85 mg/kg, subcutaneously) on 20th and 21st day for MI induction. D-Limonene pretreated group in which animals were pretreated with D-Limonene 50 mg/kg orally for 21 days then administered ISO on 20th and 21st day. MI prompted variations were assessed by myocardial infarction area determination, blood pressure (BP) alterations, cardiac injury biomarkers and inflammatory mediators measurements. For more depth investigation, both the apoptotic status was evaluated via measuring mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bax as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK-ERK) signal transduction were investigated via Western blotting. MI group revealed significant infarcted area, blood pressure alterations, myocardial injury enzymes intensification together with inflammatory cytokines amplification. MI was associated with activation of MAPK-ERK signal pathway and apoptotic status within the myocardium. On the other hand, pretreated with D-Limonene demonstrated deterred infracted area, reduced myocardial enzymes, improved BP indices, lessened inflammatory levels. Furthermore, D-Limonene pretreatment caused a decline in MAPK proteins pathway and Bax relative mRNA expression, while intensifying Bcl-2 mRNA expression promoting that D-Limonene may constrain MI induced myocardial apoptosis. D-Limonene mitigated MI injury through MAPK/NF-κB pathway inhibition and anti-apoptotic effect.
Semo Jun, Seok Won Kim, Byeol Kim, In-Youb Chang, and Seon-Joo Park
Abstract : In the present study, we investigated the effect of oncogenic H-Ras on rat mdr1b expression in NIH3T3 cells. The constitutive expression of H-RasV12 was found to downregulate the mdr1b promoter activity and mdr1b mRNA expression. The doxorubicin-induced mdr1b promoter activity of the H-RasV12 expressing NIH3T3 cells was markedly lower than that of control NIH3T3 cells. Additionally, there is a positive correlation between the level of H-RasV12 expression and a sensitivity to doxorubicin toxicity. To examine the detailed mechanism of H-RasV12-mediated down-regulation of mdr1b expression, antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) were used. Pretreating cells with either NAC or DPI significantly enhanced the oncogenic H-Ras-mediated down-regulation of mdr1b expression and markedly prevented doxorubicin-induced cell death. Moreover, NAC and DPI treatment led to a decrease in ERK activity, and the ERK inhibitors PD98059 or U0126 enhanced the mdr1b-Luc activity of H-RasV12-NIH3T3 and reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that RasV12 expression could downregulate mdr1b expression through intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and ERK activation induced by ROS, is at least in part, contributed to the downregulation of mdr1b expression.
Julia Young Baik, Eunice Yon June Park, and Insuk So
Abstract : Polycystic kidney disease 2-like-1 (PKD2L1), also known as polycystin-L or TRPP3, is a non-selective cation channel that regulates intracellular calcium concentration. Calmodulin (CaM) is a calcium binding protein, consisting of N-lobe and C-lobe with two calcium binding EF-hands in each lobe. In previous study, we confirmed that CaM is associated with desensitization of PKD2L1 and that CaM N-lobe and PKD2L1 EF-hand specifically are involved. However, the CaM-binding domain (CaMBD) and its inhibitory mechanism of PKD2L1 have not been identified. In order to identify CaM-binding anchor residue of PKD2L1, single mutants of putative CaMBD and EF-hand deletion mutants were generated. The current changes of the mutants were recorded with whole-cell patch clamp. The calmidazolium (CMZ), a calmodulin inhibitor, was used under different concentrations of intracellular. Among the mutants that showed similar or higher basal currents with that of the PKD2L1 wild type, L593A showed little change in current induced by CMZ. Co-expression of L593A with CaM attenuated the inhibitory effect of PKD2L1 by CaM. In the previous study it was inferred that CaM C-lobe inhibits channels by binding to PKD2L1 at 16 nM calcium concentration and CaM N-lobe at 100 nM. Based on the results at 16 nM calcium concentration condition, this study suggests that CaM C-lobe binds to Leu-593, which can be a CaM C-lobe anchor residue, to regulate channel activity. Taken together, our results provide a model for the regulation of PKD2L1 channel activity by CaM.