The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology (Korean J. Physiol. Pharmacol., KJPP) is the official journal of both the Korean Physiological Society (KPS) and the Korean Society of Pharmacology (KSP). The journal launched in 1997 and is published bi-monthly in English. KJPP publishes original, peer-reviewed, scientific research-based articles that report successful advances in physiology and pharmacology. KJPP welcomes the submission of all original research articles in the field of physiology and pharmacology, especially the new and innovative findings. The scope of researches includes the action mechanism, pharmacological effect, utilization, and interaction of chemicals with biological system as well as the development of new drug targets. Theoretical articles that use computational models for further understanding of the physiological or pharmacological processes are welcomed. Investigative translational research articles on human disease with an emphasis on physiology or pharmacology are also invited. KJPP does not publish work on the actions of crude biological extracts of either unknown chemical composition (e.g. unpurified and unvalidated) or unknown concentration. Reviews are normally commissioned, but consideration will be given to unsolicited contributions. All papers accepted for publication in KJPP will appear simultaneously in the printed Journal and online.
Categories of Publications
Editorials are invited perspectives on the area of physiological and pharmacological sciences, dealing with very active fields of research, current trends on physiology and pharmacology, new insights and debates.
Original Articles are papers reporting the results of basic physiological and pharmacological investigations that are sufficiently well documented to be acceptable to critical readers. Articles on original methodologies are also included in this category. Original article on the physiological and pharmacological significance of bioactive natural products is invited, provided that chemical nature of the compound is clearly identified.
Invited Reviews provide a review and perspective of important subjects for physiology and pharmacology research written by an invited expert in this field of science. Reviews should present an update of recent developments in an active field.
Letter to the Editors includes a reader's comment on an article published in KJPP and a reply from the authors. It is limited to specific comments or responses related to a recent KJPP article, the authors of which will be invited to reply.
Organization of the Manuscript
1. Original Articles
Manuscripts should be submitted initially as MS Word files. The text of your manuscript (including title page, abstract, main text, references, and figure legends) followed by tables and figures should be uploaded with separated files. Please submit the separate files of tables and figures in jpg (jpeg), gif, doc (docx), ppt (pptx) or pdf file. You can also upload it, after put many kinds of files together under a doc format file. To facilitate the reviewing process, the submitted manuscript should be formatted with the main body text in 11 point size Times New Roman, and a line spacing of two. Text should be left-aligned and surrounded by 3 cm margins. Upon acceptance, an original source of MS Word file of the manuscript will be required. High-quality figure files will be requested if necessary. The authors must also ensure that the figure legends apply to both versions of the figures.
The manuscript is to be arranged in the following order: (1) title, author(s), complete address(es) of institution(s), running title, and address for correspondence; (2) Abstract and keywords; (3) Introduction; (4) Materials and Methods; (5) Results; (6) Discussion; (7) Acknowledgements; (8) References; (9) Figure legends; (10) Tables; (11) Figures; (12) Supplementary data; and (13) Author contributions statement. Number all pages with the title page as page 1.
Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter. Standard abbreviations may be used without definition. Any nonstandard abbreviations should be spelled out on first usage, followed by the abbreviated form in parentheses. Thereafter, the abbreviated form must be used throughout the manuscript. In other cases, authors should avoid abbreviations unless they are easily understood and help in reading the paper. When introduced, in the abstract and text or in labeling figures, abbreviations must be defined at first in the abstract and text, respectively.
To make papers more readable and informative, the KJPP requests that authors mark the followings for typesetting in italics.
(a) Biological name of organisms: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, E. coli
(b) Restriction enzymes and some of enzymes: EcoRI, Taq polymerase
(c) Name of genes: src, c-H-ras, myc
(d) Latin: in vivo, in vitro, in situ
(e) Some of chemical structure: trans- retinol, cis- acting, Ncarbamoylaspartate
(f) Centrifugation force: 100,000g
Symbols, units, mathematical notation and abbreviations: Use SI units for the numerical expression of measurement. The following are to be used throughout: unpunctuated (µg, mg, g, kg, µl, ml, l, mm, cm, m, msec, sec, min, h, %, oC, µM, mM, M, LD50, wt), and punctuated (i.v., i.p., s.c., i.m., p.o., Vol., Fig., approx., temp., etc).
Chemical and biological nomenclature: In general, the conventions in chemical nomenclature adopted by the Biochemical Society should be followed. These are described in the Biochemical Journal Instructions to Authors available online from http://www.BiochemJ.org.
The title of the manuscript should be as short and informative as possible. It should not contain nonstandard abbreviations, subtitles, or colons, nor exceed two printed lines (about 18 words). The KJPP reserves the right to reword titles, with the final approval of the authors. The title page should also give the names of all authors and their affiliations. The title page should also include the name, the telephone and fax numbers, and the E-mail address of the author to whom all correspondence about the manuscript, including proofs, will be sent. The running title of less than 10 words should not be a declarative or interrogative sentence.
The abstract should be able to stand completely by itself. Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should succinctly and clearly describe the major findings, in a paragraph the purpose, methods, important results, and derived conclusions of the study in an unstructured format. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.
For indexing purposes, 4 to 6 keywords should be appended to the abstract in alphabetical order. The keywords should be standard MeSH- Medline terms (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh). The list submitted may be amended to ensure that entries are MeSH- Medline terms.
The introduction should present the purpose of the studies reported and their relationship to earlier work in the field. It should not be an extensive review of the literature nor, in general, exceed two typed pages.
Materials and Methods
The materials and methods should be as brief as possible but sufficiently complete to permit a qualified reader to repeat the experiments reported. Only truly new procedures should be described in detail; previously published procedures should be cited in references. Modifications of previously published procedures need to be given in detail only when this is necessary to repeat the work. Ethics statement should be included in materials and methods section, as the following examples. The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board of #### (IRB No. ##-##-###). Informed consent was confirmed (or waived) by the IRB. The animal studies were performed after receiving approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in ### University (IACUC approval No. ##-##- ###). Ensure correct use of the terms sex(when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors), and, unless inappropriate, report the sex or gender of study participants, the sex of animals or cells, and describe the methods used to determine sex or gender. If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors are requested to justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer). Authors should define how they determined race or ethnicity and justify their relevance.
The results of experiments should be presented in figures and tables, although some results that do not require documentation can be given solely in the text. Extensive discussion should not be given in the results section.
The discussion should be pertinent to the results. Speculation is to be based on data only and this section should not repeat results. The implications of the proposed opinion should be explained along with its limits, and the conclusion should be connected to the purpose of the research. In a concluding paragraph, the results and their meaning should be summarized. If necessary, the conclusion can be separated from the discussion part.
The acknowledgement should include sources of financial support, if any. All persons who have made substantial contribution, but who are not eligible as authors should be named in the acknowledgments.
Conflicts of Interest
The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors interpretation of the data. Example of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. Conflicts of interest statements will be published at the end of the text of the article, before the 'References' section. Even when there is no conflicts of interest, it should also be stated.
References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Authors should identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in bracket, e.g., In the adrenal medulla, Ang II releases catecholamines (CA) by a direct action [1,2], mediated either by circulating Ang II or by the intrinsic adrenal rennin angiotensin system [1-3]. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. All authors up to 20 can be listed. If author number is more than 20, the names of all authors after first 20 authors should be abbreviated to "et al". Using a software for reference management such as EndNote is encouraged. References should include, in order, authors' surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers. The last names and initials of all the authors should be included. The titles of journals are abbreviated according to the style used in the list of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE, posted by the NLM on the Library's web site (http://www.nlm.nih.gov). Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of the references. Papers in press may be listed among the references with the journal name, tentative year of publication and the digital object identifier (DOI). Unpublished data or personal communications can be listed only with the author's written permission. References for journals and books should be in the following styles:
1. Hong SM, Lee JH, Yeo SB, Cha CI, Park BR. Temporal changes of the calcium-binding
proteins in the medial vestibular nucleus following unilateral labyrinthectomy in rats.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;12:95-109.
2. Eyre HJ, Lange DP, Morris LB. Informed decisions: the complete book of cancer
diagnosis, treatment, and recovery. 2nd ed. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; c2002
May. 768 p.
3. Armstrong EJ, Armstrong AW, Rocco TP. Integrative cardiovascular pharmacology: Hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. In: Golan DE, Tashjian AH, Armstrong EJ, Armstrong AW, editors. Principles of pharmacology: The pathophysiological basis of drug therapy. 3rd ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012. p.437-463.
Article not in English
4. Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangst blant medisin- og
jusstudenter. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002;122:785-787. Norwegian.
- Optional: Translation of article title
5. Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. [Disease anxiety among medical
students and law students]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002;122:785-
Tables with their titles should be single-spaced, each on a separate sheet, with an explanatory title and sufficient experimental detail in the accompanying legend so as to be intelligible without reference to the text. Do not duplicate data by presenting it both in the text and in a table or figure. Type table footnotes, lettered a, b, etc., at the end of a table.
All figures should be submitted separately from the main text or table. Only the digital figures with a higher resolution over 300 dpi in jpg (jpeg), gif, doc (docx), ppt (pptx) or pdf file are acceptable. You can also upload each figure files or merged under ppt (pptx) format. The title should be part of the legend and not lettered onto the figure itself. Legends should be concise. However, the legend should include sufficient detail to make them intelligible without reference to the text, should define all labels and symbols used in the figure art, and should provide other essential information such as magnification or scale bar dimension. All figures should be referred to the text and be numbered consecutively.
KJPP welcomes electronic supplementary data, if any, to support and enhance your research works. Supplementary data should be as concise as possible and must be related to the main conclusion of the paper. Supplementary data can include electronic files of highresolution images, background datasets, video materials, animations and more. Supplementary data will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article. Video data files can be submitted in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content. Since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version, authors have to provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Author Contributions Statement
In a separate page, authors must include a statement to specify the contributions of each co-author. The statement can be up to several sentences long, describing the specific contributions made by each author (list the authors' initials, e.g., T.M.K.). The name of each author must appear at least once in any of the following categories; conception and design of study, acquisition of data, analysis and/or interpretation of data, drafting the manuscript, revising the manuscript critically for important intellectual content.
2. Invited Reviews
Invited Reviews should present an update of recent developments in an active field. Authors of unsolicited reviews should email the outline to the editorial office, for preliminary approval by the Editors. Review articles will be accepted after editorial evaluation. Review articles are generally prepared in the same format as Original Articles, but the details of manuscript format may be flexible according to the contents. The use of explanatory figures in the form of cartoons, flow diagrams, etc. is encouraged. Authors should break up their review into a sequence of short, headed sections.
3. Editorials and Letter to the Editors
An abstract is not required, and a brief text should be prepared with references. Maximum word count of the text is 1,000.
Manuscript Submission Procedures
Submission Authors should submit manuscripts via the electronic manuscript management system for KJPP (http://www.kjpp.net/). Clicking on the button labeled "Submission" will guide you stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. Manuscripts should be submitted by the corresponding author, who should indicate the address, telephone/fax number, and e-mail address for correspondence in the title page of the manuscript. Please log in first as a member of the system and follow the stepwise directions.
Author's Checklist: You will be first requested to confirm the 'Author's Checklist'. Before submitting new manuscript, please ensure every point listed in the 'Author's Checklist' (http://www.kjpp.net/asset/file/CheckList.pdf).
Document Forms: Before you log in the online submission system, it is great helpful to prepare the following documents because you will be asked to upload these documents during the electronic submission.
KJPP permanently retains the copyrights to all manuscripts
published in KJPP (including those submitted and approved for
publication but not yet published). Every paper published in KJPP is
freely available via our website (http://www.kjpp.net/). Authors should complete and submit the Copyright Transfer Agreement signed by all
The 'Copyright Transfer Form' (http://www.kjpp.net/) is provided as a DOC document. After fill out and consent the form, each author must sign it with his/her printed name. Then, the document can be scanned and should be prepared as a JPG, PDF, or GIF file format. Upload limit of the file is 10 Mb.
(3) Cover Letter:
A 'Cover Letter' must be included indicating the address, telephone and fax numbers, and E-mail address of the corresponding author.
(4) English Proof-Reading (non-obligatory):
Although it is not an obligatory demand, author can provide 'English Proof-Reading' which certificates the manuscript is edited by English proofreading services.
Manuscript Submission: The online submission system is set up to receive all necessary information, including files for manuscript submission including text and digital figures and videos. The system will generate a PDF from the submitted manuscript files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail. The revised manuscript should be submitted through the same online system under the same identification numbers.
Date of Receipt
The date of receipt of each paper will be printed and is normally the date on which the manuscript is first received in the Editorial Office. The date of receipt published will then refer to the date when the complete submission was received.
Queries concerning manuscript submission should be directed to: Editorial Office of the KJPP (Physiology)
1209, 14 Teheran-ro 83-gil, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06169, Korea.
Tel: 82-2-568-8026, Fax: 82-2-568-8051
Editorial Office of the KJPP (Pharmacology)
280, Gwangpyeong-ro, #1813 Rosedale Officetel, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06367, Korea.
Tel: 82-2-326-0370, Fax: 82-2-326-0371
Editorial and Peer Review Procedures
The KJPP is operated jointly by two societies (KPS and KSP), and the editorial processes are overseen by two Editors-in-Chief, one from each society. KJPP guarantees scholarly review of all submissions in a timely fashion. There is no need for authors to suggest an Editor. Upon submission, all manuscripts are pre-reviewed by at least one member of the editorial board for general suitability and strength of advance. An initial decision is usually made within 2-3 days. Manuscripts considered unsuitable for a full review, for whatever reason, will be rejected to allow authors to submit elsewhere with a minimum of delay. If sent for full review, the manuscripts are generally reviewed by at least two referees in the relevant academic field. Following review, a decision is communicated by an Editor-in-Chief or an Associate Editor relevant to the topic as soon as all referees' reports are compiled. Usually authors will receive an Editorial Report within the next 4-6 weeks of receipt of the complete manuscript to the editorial office. When appropriate, submission of a revised manuscript is encouraged. However, revising the manuscript does not guarantee an acceptance. Revised manuscripts must be received within 90 days of the decision date, or they will be considered as a new submission and may be sent to new reviewers. The final decision rests entirely with the KJPP.
Appeals of Decisions
Any appeal against the editorial decision must be made within 2 weeks of the date of the decision letter. Authors who wish to appeal a decision should contact the Editor-in-Chief, explaining in detail their reasons for the appeal. All appeals will be discussed with at least one other Associate Editors. If those associate editors do not agree, the appeal will be discussed at a full editorial meeting. KJPP does not consider second appeals.
Ethical Standard: It is expected that authors submitting papers to the KJPP will have conducted their work in strict accordance with the author's institutional review board, the name of which must be stated. All of the manuscripts should be prepared in strict observation of research and publication ethics guidelines recommended by the Council of Science Editors, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, World Association of Medical Editors, and the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors.
Duplicate Publication: The corresponding author must verify that the manuscript has been approved by all authors, has not been previously published (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint), and will not be submitted elsewhere while under review by the KJPP. If any preliminary or related report other than an abstract of 400 words or fewer has been published or submitted, or is in consideration of publication, a copy must accompany the submission. Redundant publication is defined as ''reporting (publishing or attempting to publish) substantially the same work more than once, without attribution of the original source(s)''. Characteristics of reports that are substantially similar include the following: (a) ''at least one of the authors must be common to all reports (if there are no common authors, it is more likely plagiarism than redundant publication),'' (b) ''the subject or study populations are often the same or similar,'' (c) ''the methodology is typically identical or nearly so,'' and (d) ''the results and their interpretation generally vary little, if at all.''
Plagiarism and Misconduct: Authors must do their best to avoid plagiarism (including text recycling). Authors must not use any part of a manuscript, including figures and tables, from another publication without permission. Authors must not reuse their previously published work without specific address (self-plagiarism). Authors must do avoid misconduct (fabrication, manipulation, and falsification of data). Authors must respond to requests from the journal when original data and research notes need to be verified.
Human and Animal Rights: Any study including human subjects or human data must be reviewed and approved by a responsible institutional review board (IRB). Please refer to the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki (2013) (https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/) for all investigations involving human materials. Animal experiments also should be reviewed by an appropriate committee (IACUC) for the care and use of animals. Also studies with pathogens requiring a high degree of biosafety should pass review of a relevant committee (IBC). The editor of KJPP may request submission of copies of informed consents from human subjects in clinical studies or IRB approval documents.
Authorship: The corresponding author submitting a manuscript must ensure that all authors listed are eligible for authorship. The Editors expect each author to have read the complete manuscript and to take responsibility for the content and completeness of the manuscript and to understand that if the paper, or part of the paper, is found to be faulty or fraudulent, then he/she shares responsibility with his/her coauthors. A statement that certain authors have contributed equally to the work may be included as a footnote on the title page.
Author Contributions Statement: All authors should have made substantial contributions to the works. By submitting 'Author Contributions Statement' document, each co-author must declare the specific contributions on the works. Authorship credit should be based on 1) substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; and 2) drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published; and 4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, 3, and 4. When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Journals generally list other members of the group in the Acknowledgments. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship. Those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.) should be listed in the Acknowledgments.
Changes to Authorship: If authorship of a manuscript changes (including the order of authors' names) during the publication process, notification of the change, signed by the corresponding author and any authors whose names have been added to or removed from the manuscript, must be sent to the Editorial Office. After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue, any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a Corrigendum.
Conflict of Interest
Authors are required to disclose any potential conflict of interest such as financial involvement or patent ownership. Such conflicts may be financial support or private connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, or academic problems. Disclosure form shall be same with ICMJE Uniform Disclosure Form for Potential Conflicts of Interest (http://www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf). The Editor will decide whether the information on the conflict should be included in the published paper. Before publishing such information, the Editor will consult with the corresponding author. Where such information is not already disclosed in the manuscript, it will be held in confidence during the review process.
Authors of papers published in the KJPP are obligated to honor any reasonable request by qualified investigators for unique propagative materials, such as cell lines, hybridomas, and DNA clones, that are described in the paper.
KJPP and Medrang Inc. have chosen to apply the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial 4.0 License (CC BY- NC 4.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/) to all manuscripts to be published. Once the paper is published, the copyright will be released by the KJPP and publisher under the ''Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License'', enabling the unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction of the published article in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited. If the manuscript contains a figure or table reproduced from a book or another journal article, the authors should obtain permission from the copyright holder before submitting the manuscript, and be fully responsible for any legal and/or financial consequences if such permissions are not obtained.
All PDF, XML and html files for all articles published in this journal are the property of the KJPP. Authors and readers are granted the right to freely use these files for all academic purposes. By publishing paper in this journal, the authors grant the permanent right to the publisher to use any articles published in this journal without any restriction including, but not limited to academic and/or noncommercial purposes. If you are interested in using PDF, html, XML files or any art works published in this journal for any commercial purposes, please contact the publisher at email@example.com.
Data Sharing Statement
KJPP accepts the ICMJE Recommendations for data sharing statement policy (http://icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf). All manuscripts reporting clinical trial results should submit a data sharing statement following the ICMJE guidelines..
Manuscript Accepted For Publication
Post-acceptance of the manuscript, a set of page proofs in PDF format which can be annotated will be sent to the corresponding author. If the author does not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return to the Medrang Inc. in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. Failure to act promptly to approve the page proofs may delay publication of the manuscript. Page proofs are considered to be the final version of the manuscript. Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange of the article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted in 'Changes to Authorship' and result in a Corrigendum.
There is no submission fees of author side. Payment is due when KJPP accepts the article for publication. For a corresponding author who is an active member of the Korean Physiological Society (KPS) or the Korean Society of Pharmacology (KSP), the KJPP publication fee is 600,000 KRW (subject to change without notice) per manuscript and will be billed upon acceptance. For a non-member corresponding author, the publication fee is 700,000 KRW (subject to change without notice). Non-member corresponding authors may join KPS or KSP to obtain discounts on publication fees. Former members who wish to renew their membership at the same level should be directed to the Editorial office of KJPP (Physiology or Pharmacology). Any articles longer than 8 printed pages will be asked additional page charges. The person who submits the manuscript is responsible for the publication fee payment. KJPP does not provide any individual or institutional publication fee support program to authors. Delayed payment will be a consideration in the decision when to publish the accepted manuscripts.
Color charges: Authors will be assessed a charge for each page with color figure(s). Color figures can generally be reproduced in acceptable quality in black and white if authors are unwilling or unable to pay for color charges. Authors are asked to contribute towards the cost of printing color figures.
Offprint charges: Authors are supplied with a PDF file of the final published article. Offprints can be purchased from the publisher by completing the Offprints Order Form provided with the proof. For further information contact MEDrang Inc.: firstname.lastname@example.org
Errata, Corrigenda, Retraction
For correcting errors in published articles, the corresponding author should contact the Journal's Editorial Office with a detailed description of the correction. Corrections that affect profoundly the interpretation or conclusions of the article will be reviewed by the Editors. Corrections will be published as Corrigenda (corrections of author's errors) or Errata (corrections of publisher's errors) in a later issue of the Journal. Articles may be retracted by any of the authors, academic or institutional sponsor, or KJPP, because of scientific misconduct. The Journal will retract an article at the authors' request at any time without requiring explanation (Author-requested Retractions). The corresponding author should contact the Editor-in-Chief to request a retraction. The statements of Author-requested Retraction notice that the article has been retracted at the authors' request. The authors may provide a brief explanation of the error(s) in retraction statements. The KJPP reserve the right to retract an article (Editorial Retraction) at any time without the consent of the authors, if an investigation by an appropriate authority reveals a violation of the Journal's Ethical Policies regardless of whether that violation was intentional or not.